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On the decision to go public: Evidence from privately-held firms

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  • Ljungqvist, Alexander
  • Boehmer, Ekkehart

Abstract

We test recent theories of when companies go public which predict that 1) more companies will go public when outside valuations are high or have increased, 2) companies prefer going public when uncertainty about their future profitability is high, and 3) firms whose controlling shareholders enjoy large private benefits of control are less likely to go public. Our analysis tracks a set of 330 privately-held German firms which between 1984 and 1995 announced their intention to go public to see whether, when, and how they subsequently sold equity to outside investors. Controlling for private benefits, we find that the likelihood of firms completing an initial public offering increases in the firm's investment opportunities and valuations. We also show that these effects are distinct from factors that increase firms' demand for outside capital more generally.

Suggested Citation

  • Ljungqvist, Alexander & Boehmer, Ekkehart, 2004. "On the decision to go public: Evidence from privately-held firms," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2004,16, Deutsche Bundesbank.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:bubdp1:2161
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Anna Kovner & Chenyang Wei, 2012. "The private premium in public bonds," Staff Reports 553, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    2. Krzysztof Jackowicz & Oskar Kowalewski & Łukasz Kozłowski & Paulina Roszkowska, 2017. "Issuing bonds, shares or staying private? Determinants of going public in an emerging economy," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(1), pages 1-26, January.
    3. Borisov, Alexander & Ellul, Andrew & Sevilir, Merih, 2015. "Access to Public Capital Markets and Employment Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 10521, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Celikyurt, Ugur & Sevilir, Merih & Shivdasani, Anil, 2010. "Going public to acquire? The acquisition motive in IPOs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(3), pages 345-363, June.
    5. Alexander Borisov & Andrew Ellul & Merih Sevilir, 2015. "Access to Public Capital Markets and Employment Growth," CSEF Working Papers 399, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    6. Richard J. Rosen & Scott B. Smart & Chad J. Zutter, 2005. "Why do firms go public? evidence from the banking industry," Working Paper Series WP-05-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    7. Leite, Tore, 2007. "Adverse selection, public information, and underpricing in IPOs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 813-828, December.
    8. Bouis, Romain, 2009. "The short-term timing of initial public offerings," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 587-601, December.
    9. Leuz, Christian & Triantis, Alexander & Yue Wang, Tracy, 2008. "Why do firms go dark? Causes and economic consequences of voluntary SEC deregistrations," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2-3), pages 181-208, August.
    10. Doukas, John A. & Hoque, Hafiz, 2016. "Why firms favour the AIM when they can list on main market?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 378-404.
    11. Thomas J. Chemmanur & Shan He & Debarshi K. Nandy, 2010. "The Going-Public Decision and the Product Market," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(5), pages 1855-1908.
    12. Xie, Xiaoying, 2010. "Are publicly held firms less efficient? Evidence from the US property-liability insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1549-1563, July.
    13. Mayur, Manas & Kumar, Manoj, 2006. "An Empirical Investigation of Going Public Decision of Indian Companies," MPRA Paper 1801, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Patrascu (Sandu) Diana – Ramona, 2014. "The Decision Of Going Public – When, Where And Why?," Annals - Economy Series, Constantin Brancusi University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 1, pages 166-172, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Going public decision; IPO timing; Private benefits; Family firms;

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

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