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The Impact of Female Employment on the Likelihood and Timing of Second and Higher Order Pregnancies

  • Harvey S. James Jr.

    (University of Hartford)

This paper examines the effects of married women's employment on their fertility behavior in the United States. Data from the National Survey of Family and Households are used in a hazard model to determine whether a woman's employment status affected the rate at which she had a second, third or fourth pregnancy. The study finds that the labor-force participation of women does have an important effect on the spacing of pregnancies, although the effect is less pronounced in the transition to third pregnancy. In addition, this paper demonstrates that an appropriate method of modeling the fertility and female employment relationship is one in which employment is seen to influence the rate of childbearing.

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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Labor and Demography with number 9612002.

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Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: 13 Dec 1996
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:9612002
Note: Type of Document - Word 7.0; prepared on IBM PC Pentium running Windows95; to print on HP laserjet 4; pages: 24; figures: none
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org

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  1. J. Stycos & Robert Weller, 1967. "Female working roles and fertility," Demography, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 210-217, March.
  2. De Cooman, Eric & Ermisch, John F & Joshi, Heather, 1985. "The Next Birth and the Labour Market: A Dynamic Model of Births in England and Wales," CEPR Discussion Papers 37, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Matthaei, Julie A, 1980. "Consequences of the Rise of the Two-Earner Family: The Breakdown of the Sexual Division of Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(2), pages 198-202, May.
  4. H. Theodore Groat & Randy Workman & Arthur Neal, 1976. "Labor force participation and family formation: A study of working mothers," Demography, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 115-125, February.
  5. Glen Cain & Adriana Weininger, 1973. "Economic determinants of fertility: Results from cross sectional aggregate data," Demography, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 205-223, May.
  6. O. Collver, 1968. "Women's work participation and fertility in metropolitan areas," Demography, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 55-60, March.
  7. Newman, John L & McCulloch, Charles E, 1984. "A Hazard Rate Approach to the Timing of Births," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(4), pages 939-61, July.
  8. Heckman, James J & Hotz, V Joseph & Walker, James R, 1985. "New Evidence on the Timing and Spacing of Births," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 179-84, May.
  9. Frank Mott, 1972. "Fertility, life cycle stage and female labor Force participation in Rhode Island: A retrospective overview," Demography, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 173-185, February.
  10. Gary S. Becker, 1960. "An Economic Analysis of Fertility," NBER Chapters, in: Demographic and Economic Change in Developed Countries, pages 209-240 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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