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The Impact of Female Employment on the Likelihood and Timing of Second and Higher Order Pregnancies

Listed author(s):
  • Harvey S. James Jr.

    (University of Hartford)

This paper examines the effects of married women's employment on their fertility behavior in the United States. Data from the National Survey of Family and Households are used in a hazard model to determine whether a woman's employment status affected the rate at which she had a second, third or fourth pregnancy. The study finds that the labor-force participation of women does have an important effect on the spacing of pregnancies, although the effect is less pronounced in the transition to third pregnancy. In addition, this paper demonstrates that an appropriate method of modeling the fertility and female employment relationship is one in which employment is seen to influence the rate of childbearing.

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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Labor and Demography with number 9612002.

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Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: 13 Dec 1996
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpla:9612002
Note: Type of Document - Word 7.0; prepared on IBM PC Pentium running Windows95; to print on HP laserjet 4; pages: 24; figures: none
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  1. Heckman, James J & Hotz, V Joseph & Walker, James R, 1985. "New Evidence on the Timing and Spacing of Births," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 179-184, May.
  2. Frank Mott, 1972. "Fertility, life cycle stage and female labor Force participation in Rhode Island: A retrospective overview," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 9(1), pages 173-185, February.
  3. H. Theodore Groat & Randy Workman & Arthur Neal, 1976. "Labor force participation and family formation: A study of working mothers," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 13(1), pages 115-125, February.
  4. Glen Cain & Adriana Weininger, 1973. "Economic determinants of fertility: Results from cross sectional aggregate data," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 10(2), pages 205-223, May.
  5. Matthaei, Julie A, 1980. "Consequences of the Rise of the Two-Earner Family: The Breakdown of the Sexual Division of Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(2), pages 198-202, May.
  6. De Cooman, Eric & Ermisch, John F & Joshi, Heather, 1985. "The Next Birth and the Labour Market: A Dynamic Model of Births in England and Wales," CEPR Discussion Papers 37, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Newman, John L & McCulloch, Charles E, 1984. "A Hazard Rate Approach to the Timing of Births," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(4), pages 939-961, July.
  8. O. Collver, 1968. "Women's work participation and fertility in metropolitan areas," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 5(1), pages 55-60, March.
  9. J. Stycos & Robert Weller, 1967. "Female working roles and fertility," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 4(1), pages 210-217, March.
  10. Gary S. Becker, 1960. "An Economic Analysis of Fertility," NBER Chapters,in: Demographic and Economic Change in Developed Countries, pages 209-240 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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