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Monetary Incentives in Mail Surveys


  • JS Armstrong

    (The Wharton School)


Eighteen empirical studies from fourteen different researchers provide evidence that prepaid monetary incentives have a strong positive impact on the response rate in mail surveys. One of these studies is described here and an attempt is made to generalize from all eighteen about the relationship between size of incentives and reduction in nonresponse. These generalizations should be of value for the design of mail survey studies.

Suggested Citation

  • JS Armstrong, 2005. "Monetary Incentives in Mail Surveys," General Economics and Teaching 0502045, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpgt:0502045
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 5

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Armstrong, J. Scott & Overton, Terry, 1971. "Brief vs. comprehensive descriptions in measuring intentions to purchase," MPRA Paper 81697, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael Bowling, J. & Rimer, Barbara K. & Lyons, Elizabeth J. & Golin, Carol E. & Frydman, Gilles & Ribisl, Kurt M., 2006. "Methodologic challenges of e-health research," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 390-396, November.
    2. JS Armstrong, 2005. "Review of Don A. Dillman's Mail and Telephone Surveys, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978," General Economics and Teaching 0502043, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Jobber, David & Saunders, John & Mitchell, Vince-Wayne, 2004. "Prepaid monetary incentive effects on mail survey response," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 57(4), pages 347-350, April.
    4. Aleksandra Gajic & David Cameron & Jeremiah Hurley, 2012. "The cost-effectiveness of cash versus lottery incentives for a web-based, stated-preference community survey," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 13(6), pages 789-799, December.
    5. Armstrong, J. Scott & Yokum, J. Thomas, 1994. "Effectiveness of Monetary Incentives: Mail Surveys to Members of Multinational Professional Groups," MPRA Paper 81691, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Uri Gneezy & Pedro Rey-Biel, "undated". "On the Relative Efficiency of Performance Pay and Social Incentives," Working Papers 585, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    7. Jobber, David & Saunders, John & Mitchell, Vince-Wayne, 2004. "Prepaid monetary incentive effects on mail survey response," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 21-25, January.
    8. J Saunders & D Jobber & V Mitchell, 2006. "The optimum prepaid monetary incentives for mail surveys," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 57(10), pages 1224-1230, October.
    9. Arvydas Jadevicius & Brian Sloan & Andrew Brown, 2013. "Property Market Modelling and Forecasting: A Case for Simplicity," ERES eres2013_10, European Real Estate Society (ERES).

    More about this item


    monetary incentives; surveys;

    JEL classification:

    • A - General Economics and Teaching


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