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On the Existence of Equilibrium Bank Runs in a Diamond-Dybvig Environment

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  • Guilherme Carmona

    (Universidade Nova de Lisboa)

Abstract

In a version of the Diamond and Dybvig (1983) model with aggregate uncertainty, we show that there exists an equilibrium with the following properties: all consumers deposit at the bank, all patient consumers wait for the last period to withdraw, and the bank fails with strictly positive probability. Furthermore, we show that the probability of a bank failure remains bounded away from zero as the number of consumers increases. We interpret such an equilibrium as reflecting a bank run, defined as an episode in which a large number of people withdraw their deposits from a bank, forcing it to fail. Our results show that we can have equilibrium bank runs with consumers poorly informed about the true state of nature, a sequential service constraint, an infinite marginal utility of consumption at zero, and without consumers' panic and sunspots. We therefore think that aggregate risk in Diamond-Dybvig-like environments can be an important element to explain bank runs.

Suggested Citation

  • Guilherme Carmona, 2004. "On the Existence of Equilibrium Bank Runs in a Diamond-Dybvig Environment," Finance 0404009, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpfi:0404009
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 52
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ennis, Huberto M. & Keister, Todd, 2003. "Economic growth, liquidity, and bank runs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 220-245, April.
    2. Green, Edward J. & Lin, Ping, 2003. "Implementing efficient allocations in a model of financial intermediation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 109(1), pages 1-23, March.
    3. Franklin Allen & Douglas Gale, 1998. "Optimal Financial Crises," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1245-1284, August.
    4. Carmen M. Reinhart & Graciela L. Kaminsky, 1999. "The Twin Crises: The Causes of Banking and Balance-of-Payments Problems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 473-500, June.
    5. Barlo, Mehmet & Carmona, Guilherme, 2015. "Strategic behavior in non-atomic games," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 134-144.
    6. Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000. "Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 14-23.
    7. James Peck & Karl Shell, 2003. "Bank Portfolio Restrictions and Equilibrium Bank Runs," Levine's Bibliography 666156000000000077, UCLA Department of Economics.
    8. Gorton, Gary, 1988. "Banking Panics and Business Cycles," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(4), pages 751-781, December.
    9. James Peck & Karl Shell, 2003. "Equilibrium Bank Runs," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(1), pages 103-123, February.
    10. Edward J. Green & Ping Lin, 2000. "Diamond and Dybvig's classic theory of financial intermediation : what's missing?," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 3-13.
    11. Bernardino Adao & Ted Temzelides, 1998. "Sequential Equilibrium and Competition in a Diamond-Dybvig Banking Model," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 1(4), pages 859-877, October.
    12. Hildenbrand, Werner, 1971. "Random preferences and equilibrium analysis," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 414-429, December.
    13. Neil Wallace, 1988. "Another attempt to explain an illiquid banking system: the Diamond and Dybvig model with sequential service taken seriously," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Fall, pages 3-16.
    14. Guilherme Carmona, 2003. "Nash and Limit Equilibria of Games with a Continuum of Players," Game Theory and Information 0311004, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Neil Wallace, 1990. "A banking model in which partial suspension is best," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Fall, pages 11-23.
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    Cited by:

    1. Harold Ngalawa & Fulbert Tchana Tchana & Nicola Viegi, 2016. "Banking instability and deposit insurance: The role of moral hazard," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 19, pages 323-350, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bank runs; aggregate uncertainty;

    JEL classification:

    • C72 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Noncooperative Games
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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