Entrepreneurial Opportunity and the Formation of the Photovoltaic Industry in Eastern Germany
Research on the spatial distribution of economic activity has mainly focussed on identifying conditions that sustain industrial clusters, as they are perceived to be the locus of regional economic growth. Taking this static perspective, today only little is known about the factors that facilitate the emergence of spatial structures in new industries. To achieve deeper insights in these formation processes 'theory must explain how information and resources for entrepreneurial activities come to be disproportionally massed in some places and some times'. Within this context, recent developments in institutional economic geography underline the role of social movements contributing to institutional change and government action, thus affecting entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial opportunity. As these institutions and government actions have a spatial dimension, they can induce Windows of Locational Opportunity (WLO) supporting the evolution of spatial patterns of new industries. Yet, little research has examined the role of institutional change and government action in the evolution of new industries or entrepreneurial opportunity. Regarding the energy sector, the importance of institutional change seems to hold for effects of environmental movements, as they were able to give an increased awareness of pre-existing technological solutions (esp. alternative sources of energy). Changes within this field - in earlier days as reaction to oil crises - can nowadays be seen as reactions in answer to climate change caused by emissions of CO2. This calls for a rapid rate of diffusion of CO2 neutral energy technologies so that the shift towards renewable energies results in a series of technological discontinuities in the energy field. The objective of this paper is to explain the evolution of spatial structures of one special type of renewable energies in Germany, the photovoltaic industry (PV). In a first step we demonstrate how environmental movements contributed to institutional change and government action leading to changes in the legal and regulative structure in Germany. We describe how these changes opened up a Window of Locational Opportunity and therefore combine the approach of the WLO concept with that of entrepreneurial opportunity.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ron A. Boschma & Rik Wenting, 2007. "The spatial evolution of the British automobile industry: Does location matter?," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(2), pages 213-238, April.
- Michael S. Dahl & Christian Ø.R. Pedersen & Bent Dalum, 2003. "Entry by Spinoff in a High-tech Cluster," DRUID Working Papers 03-11, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
- Mitchell, C. & Bauknecht, D. & Connor, P.M., 2006. "Effectiveness through risk reduction: a comparison of the renewable obligation in England and Wales and the feed-in system in Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 297-305, February.
- Jacobsson, Staffan & Lauber, Volkmar, 2006. "The politics and policy of energy system transformation--explaining the German diffusion of renewable energy technology," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 256-276, February.
- Andersson, Bjorn A. & Jacobsson, Staffan, 2000. "Monitoring and assessing technology choice: the case of solar cells," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(14), pages 1037-1049, November.
- Staffan Jacobsson & Anna Bergek, 2004. "Transforming the energy sector: the evolution of technological systems in renewable energy technology," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(5), pages 815-849, October.
- Salas, V. & Olias, E., 2009. "Overview of the photovoltaic technology status and perspective in Spain," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 1049-1057, June.
- Henn Sebastian, 2008. "Formierung und Wirkungsgefüge regionaler Technologiecluster," Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, De Gruyter, vol. 52(1), pages 95-113, October.
- Ron Boschma & Koen Frenken, 2009.
"Some Notes on Institutions in Evolutionary Economic Geography,"
Clark University, vol. 85(2), pages 151-158, 04.
- Ron Boschma & Koen Frenken, 2008. "Some Notes on Institutions in Evolutionary Economic Geography," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 0817, Utrecht University, Section of Economic Geography, revised Oct 2008.
- Brachert, Matthias & Hornych, Christoph, 2009. "Die Formierung von Photovoltaik-Clustern in Ostdeutschland," Wirtschaft im Wandel, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), vol. 15(2), pages 81-90.
- Kitschelt, Herbert P., 1986. "Political Opportunity Structures and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies," British Journal of Political Science, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(01), pages 57-85, January.
- Wustenhagen, Rolf & Bilharz, Michael, 2006. "Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(13), pages 1681-1696, September.
- Baumol, William J., 1993. "Formal entrepreneurship theory in economics: Existence and bounds," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 197-210, May. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)