IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Entrepreneurial process and performance: the case of the Turkish female entrepreneurs in Amsterdam

Listed author(s):
  • Baycan Levent, Tuzin


  • Masurel, Enno


  • Nijkamp, Peter


Ethnic entrepreneurship has become a popular concept in the modern multi-cultural society; in a modern 'multi-color' city ethnic entrepreneurship tends to become an indigenous and significant part of the local economy. This concept refers to business activities undertaken by entrepreneurs with a distinct socio-cultural or ethnic background. Ethnic groups often have a backward position in society, because of difficulties with native behavior, language and diploma's attitudes. The participation rate of ethnic groups in the urban labor market stays often behind and, when they do participate, they are often situated within the secondary labor market segments. For ethnic groups who are unable to adapt to a new social system, their marginal social position is a driving force to become self-employed some special talents. One way for migrants to escape from their backward position is to become an entrepreneur. In this case, self-employment is not only a means for earning a living, it is also a way of obtaining recognition and social acceptance. On the other hand, in the last few decades the participation rate of women in the labour market has increased in most Western countries. An increase in the participation rate of women does not necessarily imply an increase in the number of female entrepreneurs. However, it does increase the likelihood of women to become self-employed. Moreover, women contribute to the diversity in the supply of entrepreneurship, because they may have a different approach towards entrepreneurship compared to men. Despite the scarcity of data, recent observations show the involvement of women in entrepreneurial activity and self-employment rates, which include women who own and operate their own businesses are increasing around the world. According to available data, between one-quarter and one-third of the formal sector businesses are owned and operated by women. The aim of this paper is to describe and understand the entrepreneurial processes of ethnic females. In which way and to which extent are these processes the result of: a) unemployment b) job level c) poor performance in terms of wages d) work experience e) educational level f) language g) discrimination h) socio-cultural and ethnic networks? Or in other words, what are the factors that stimulate females to find other income generating activities? What are the important factors for the motivation and performance of female entrepreneurship? Which factors contribute to the success or failure of ethnic female entrepreneurs? And how do these female entrepreneurs experience failure or survival? What is the satisfaction level of female entrepreneurs? This study aims to provide an answer to these questions on the basis of case study research on Turkish female entrepreneurs in Amsterdam.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa02p397.

in new window

Date of creation: Aug 2002
Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa02p397
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Welthandelsplatz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria

Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

in new window

  1. Bull, Ivan & Winter, Frederick, 1991. "Community differences in business births and business growths," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 29-43, January.
  2. Bates, Timothy, 1997. "Financing small business creation: The case of Chinese and Korean immigrant entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 109-124, March.
  3. Borooah, Vani K & Hart, Mark, 1999. "Factors Affecting Self-Employment among Indian and Black Caribbean Men in Britain," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 111-129, September.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa02p397. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.