Trade, foreign exchange, and energy policies in the Islamic Republic of Iran : reform agenda, economic implications, and impact on the poor
The Islamic Republic of Iran has committed itself to substantial trade and market reform in its Third Five-Year Development Plan. It started out with nontariff barriers on all products, a dual exchange rate regime with the market rate more than four times the official rate, and domestic energy subsidies equal to about 90 percent of the cost of energy products. Many of these policies were justified as helping the poor. To analyze the effect of the reforms, separately and together, the authors develop a multisector computable general equilibrium model with 10 rural and 10 urban households. They find that the combined reforms could generate welfare gains equal to about 50 percent of aggregate consumer income. These gains reflect the large initial distortions-for example, energy subsidies equal to about 18 percent of GDP, and retail energy prices equal to about 10 percent of world market prices. Separately, trade reform would lead to gains of about 5 percent of income, exchange rate reform to gains of 7 percent of income, and energy pricing reform to gains of 33 percent of income. The authors'results show that well-intentioned commodity subsidy policies for the poor can have perverse effects. Direct income payments to all households (not just the poor) would vastly increase the incomes of the poor compared with the status quo. Moreover, if the combined reforms were implemented, the poorest rural household would receive gains equal to about 290 percent of its income, and the poorest urban household gains equal to about 140 percent of its income.
|Date of creation:||31 Jan 2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Morkre, Morris & Tarr, David G., 1993.
"Reforming Hungarian agricultural trade policy : a quantitative evaluation,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1185, The World Bank.
- Morris Morkre & David Tarr, 1995. "Reforming Hungarian agricultural trade policy: A quantitative evaluation," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 131(1), pages 106-131, March.
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1993.
"Industrial Policy in the Presence of Wage Distortions: The Case of the U.S. Auto and Steel Industries,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 34(4), pages 833-51, November.
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1990. "Industrial Policy in the Presence of Wage Distortion: The Case of the US Auto and Steel Industries," CEPR Discussion Papers 435, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Melo, J. de & Tarr, D., 1993. "Industrial Policy in the Presence of Wage Distorsions: The Case of the US Auto and Steel Industries," Research Papers by the Institute of Economics and Econometrics, Geneva School of Economics and Management, University of Geneva 93.17, Institut d'Economie et Econométrie, Université de Genève.
- Harrison, Glenn W. & Rutherford, Thomas F. & Tarr, David G., 1997.
"Economic implications for Turkey of a Customs Union with the European Union,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 861-870, April.
- Harrison, Glenn W. & Rutherford, Thomas F. & Tarr, David G., 1996. "Economic implications for Turkey of a customs union with the European Union," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1599, The World Bank.
- Harrison, Glenn W & Rutherford, Thomas F & Tarr, David G, 1997. "Quantifying the Uruguay Round," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(444), pages 1405-30, September.
- Rutherford, Thomas F. & Tarr, David G., 2002. "Trade liberalization, product variety and growth in a small open economy: a quantitative assessment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 247-272, March.
- Hope, Einar & Singh, Balbir, 1995. "Energy price increases in developing countries : case studies of Colombia, Ghana, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, and Zimbabwe," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1442, The World Bank.
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1990.
"Welfare Costs of US Quotas in Textiles, Steel and Autos,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
401, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1990. "Welfare Costs of U.S. Quotas in Textiles, Steel and Autos," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(3), pages 489-97, August.
- de Melo, Jaime & Tarr, David, 1988. "Welfare costs of U.S. quotas on textiles, steel, and autos," Policy Research Working Paper Series 83, The World Bank.
- Harrison, Glenn W & Rutherford, Thomas F & Tarr, David G, 1993. "Trade Reform in the Partially Liberalized Economy of Turkey," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 7(2), pages 191-217, May.
- Rutherford, Thomas F. & Rutstrom, E. Elisabet & Tarr, David, 1997. "Morocco's free trade agreement with the EU: A quantitative assessment," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 237-269, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2768. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.