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Trade, Exchange Rate, and Energy Pricing Reform in Iran: Potentially Large Efficiency Effects and Gains to the Poor

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  • Jesper Jensen
  • David Tarr

Abstract

Iran is committed to substantial trade and market reform in its Third Five Year Development Plan. It started, however, with nontariff barriers on all products, a dual exchange rate regime with the market rate more than four times the official rate, and domestic energy product subsidies of about 90%. The authors develop a multisector computable general-equilibrium model with ten rural and ten urban households to analyze the various reforms, separately and together. Reflecting the large initial distortions, they find that the combined reforms could generate large welfare gains equal to about 50% of aggregate consumer income. Moreover, the results show that well-intentioned policies of commodity subsidies for the poor can have perverse effects. Even nontargeted direct income payments to all households (not just the poor) would enormously and progressively increase the incomes of the poor compared to the status quo. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2003.

Suggested Citation

  • Jesper Jensen & David Tarr, 2003. "Trade, Exchange Rate, and Energy Pricing Reform in Iran: Potentially Large Efficiency Effects and Gains to the Poor," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(4), pages 543-562, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:rdevec:v:7:y:2003:i:4:p:543-562
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    Cited by:

    1. Breton, Michèle & Mirzapour, Hossein, 2016. "Welfare implication of reforming energy consumption subsidies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 232-240.
    2. Hossein Mirshojaeian Hosseini & Shinji Kaneko, 2012. "A general equilibrium analysis of the inflationary impact of energy subsidies reform in Iran," IDEC DP2 Series 2-8, Hiroshima University, Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC).
    3. repec:mbr:jmonec:v:9:y:2014:i:2:p:64-85 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Hesham AlShehabi, Omar, 2012. "Energy and labour reform: Evidence from Iran," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 441-459.
    5. Rutherford, Thomas & Tarr, David & Shepotylo, Oleksandr, 2005. "The impact on Russia of WTO accession and the Doha agenda : the importance of liberalization of barriers against foreign direct investment in services for growth and poverty reduction," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3725, The World Bank.
    6. Tarr, David G., 2013. "Putting Services and Foreign Direct Investment with Endogenous Productivity Effects in Computable General Equilibrium Models," Handbook of Computable General Equilibrium Modeling, Elsevier.
    7. Thomas F. Rutherford & David G. Tarr, 2014. "Poverty effects of Russia's WTO accession: Modeling “real” households with endogenous productivity effects," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: APPLIED TRADE POLICY MODELING IN 16 COUNTRIES Insights and Impacts from World Bank CGE Based Projects, chapter 12, pages 287-306 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    8. AlShehabi, Omar Hesham, 2013. "Modelling energy and labour linkages: A CGE approach with an application to Iran," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 88-98.
    9. Farajzadeh, Zakariya & Zhu, Xueqin & Bakhshoodeh, Mohammad, 2017. "Trade reform in Iran for accession to the World Trade Organization: Analysis of welfare and environmental impacts," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 75-85.
    10. Glenn W. Harrison & Thomas F. Rutherford & Tarr,David, 2003. "Rules of thumb for evaluating preferential trading arrangements : evidence from computable general equilibrium assessments," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3149, The World Bank.
    11. Mirnezami, Seyed Reza, 2014. "Electricity inequality in Canada: Should pricing reforms eliminate subsidies to encourage efficient usage?," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 36-43.
    12. Mohammad Reza Farzanegan & Mohammad Mohammadikhabbazan & Hossein Sadeghi, 2015. "Effect of Oil Sanctions on the Macroeconomic and Household Welfare in Iran: New Evidence from a CGE Model," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201507, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    13. Gharibnavaz, Mohammad Reza & Waschik, Robert, 2015. "Food and energy subsidy reforms in Iran: A general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 726-741.
    14. repec:eee:eneeco:v:71:y:2018:i:c:p:186-200 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Pierre-Olivier Pineau, 2008. "Electricity Subsidies in Low-Cost Jurisdictions: The Case of British Columbia," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 34(3), pages 379-394, September.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • R10 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - General

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