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Reforming Hungarian agricultural trade policy : a quantitative evaluation


  • Morkre, Morris
  • Tarr, David G.


The authors quantitatively assess the consequences of Hungary for three types of policies: removing quantitative import restraints in agriculture, both for all of agriculture and for each of five separate agricultural products; removing the export subsidy program in agriculture; and adopting a European Community type common agricultural policy (CAP) system in Hungary. The authors estimate the consequences of all policies by using a small open economy computable general equilibrium model for Hungary, calibrated to the year 1990. They estimate the tariff equivalent of the import licenses through a detailed study of price comparisons, the first of itskind for Hungary. Imposing a CAP system they find, would be a costly step backward for Hungary, especially as the long run trend in Hungarian agricultural policy has been toward less intervention and more reliance on the market. A CAP system would significantly increase the government's fiscal problems. Import protection and export subsidies are costly, inefficient policies. The most important policy conclusion they contend, has to do with the piecemeal sequencing of reforms in the presence of both export subsidies and import licenses. Removing import licenses while export subsidies remain would generate byproduct distortions in the export market and little gain in welfare. The piecemeal removal of export subsidies, however, would not generate byproduct distortion, so substantial gains could be expected - but at the expense of greater adjustment costs. To facilitate understanding of this commonly used type of general equilibrium model, the authors explain the results by using supply and demand style graphs of the agricultural sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Morkre, Morris & Tarr, David G., 1993. "Reforming Hungarian agricultural trade policy : a quantitative evaluation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1185, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:1185

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. David Tarr, 2017. "Quantifying Second Best Effects in Grossly Distorted Markets: The Case of the Butter Market in Poland," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Trade Policies for Development and Transition, chapter 10, pages 225-239 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. Jaime de Melo & David Tarr, 2015. "Welfare Costs Of U.S. Quotas In Textiles, Steel And Autos," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Modeling Developing Countries' Policies in General Equilibrium, chapter 21, pages 451-459 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Jaime De Melo & David Tarr, 2017. "Industrial Policy In The Presence Of Wage Distortions: The Case Of The Us Auto And Steel Industries," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Trade Policies for Development and Transition, chapter 24, pages 575-593 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    4. Trela, Irene & Whalley, John & Wigle, Randall, 1987. " International Trade in Grains: Domestic Policies and Trade Impacts," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 89(3), pages 271-283.
    5. repec:wsi:wschap:9789813108448_0013 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Gabor Oblath & David Tarr, 2017. "The Terms-of-Trade Effects from the Elimination of State Trading in Soviet-Hungarian Trade," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Trade Policies for Development and Transition, chapter 13, pages 295-313 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    7. Harrison, Glenn W. & Rutherford, Thomas F. & Tarr, David G., 1992. "Piecemeal trade reform in partially liberalized economies : an evaluation for Turkey," Policy Research Working Paper Series 951, The World Bank.
    8. Harberger, Arnold C, 1971. "Three Basic Postulates for Applied Welfare Economics: An Interpretive Essay," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 785-797, September.
    9. Trela, Irene & Whalley, John, 1990. "Global Effects of Developed Country Trade Restrictions on Textiles and Apparel," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(403), pages 1190-1205, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Glenn W. Harrison & Thomas F. Rutherford & David G. Tarr, 2014. "Economic implications for Turkey of a Customs Union with the European Union," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: APPLIED TRADE POLICY MODELING IN 16 COUNTRIES Insights and Impacts from World Bank CGE Based Projects, chapter 16, pages 395-404 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. repec:wsi:wschap:9789813108448_0017 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Rutherford, Thomas F. & Tarr, David G., 1998. "Trade liberalization and endogenous growth in a small open economy : a quantitative assessment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1970, The World Bank.
    4. Thomas F. Rutherford & David G. Tarr, 2017. "Trade liberalization, product variety and growth in a small open economy: a quantitative assessment," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Trade Policies for Development and Transition, chapter 17, pages 389-414 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Philippidis, G. & Resano, H. & Sanjuán, A.I., 2014. "Shifting Armington trade preferences: A re-examination of the Mercosur–EU negotiations," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 21-32.
    6. Jensen, Jesper & Tarr, David, 2002. "Trade, foreign exchange, and energy policies in the Islamic Republic of Iran : reform agenda, economic implications, and impact on the poor," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2768, The World Bank.
    7. Alexandre Gohin & Herve Guyomard & Chantal Le Mouël, 2006. "Tariff protection elimination and Common Agricultural Policy reform: implications of changes in methods of import demand modelling," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(13), pages 1527-1539.

    More about this item


    Access to Markets; Economic Theory&Research; Environmental Economics&Policies; TF054105-DONOR FUNDED OPERATION ADMINISTRATION FEE INCOME AND EXPENSE ACCOUNT; Markets and Market Access;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • R10 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - General


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