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Household Energy Demand and the Equity and Efficiency Aspects of Subsidy Reform in Indonesia

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Abstract

The proper design of price interventions in energy markets requires consideration of equity and efficiency effects. In this paper, budget survey data from 29,000 Indonesian households are used to estimate a demand system for five energy sources, which is identified by the spatial variation in unit values (expenditures divided by quantities). We correct for the various quality and measurement error biases that result when unit values are used as proxies for market prices. The price elasticities are combined with tax and subsidy rates to calculate the marginal social cost of price changes for each item. The results suggest that even with high levels of inequality aversion there is a case for reducing the large subsidies on kerosene in Indonesia, supporting the reforms that have been announced recently.

Suggested Citation

  • Susan Olivia & John Gibson, 2006. "Household Energy Demand and the Equity and Efficiency Aspects of Subsidy Reform in Indonesia," Working Papers in Economics 06/06, University of Waikato.
  • Handle: RePEc:wai:econwp:06/06
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    1. Deaton, Angus, 1988. "Quality, Quantity, and Spatial Variation of Price," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(3), pages 418-430, June.
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    7. Nicita, Alessandro, 2004. "Efficiency and equity of a marginal tax reform - income, quality, and price elasticities for Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3266, The World Bank.
    8. Pitt, Mark M., 1985. "Equity, externalities and energy subsidies The case of kerosine in Indonesia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 201-217, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rao, Narasimha D., 2013. "Distributional impacts of climate change mitigation in Indian electricity: The influence of governance," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1344-1356.
    2. Ngui, Dianah & Mutua, John & Osiolo, Hellen & Aligula, Eric, 2011. "Household energy demand in Kenya: An application of the linear approximate almost ideal demand system (LA-AIDS)," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(11), pages 7084-7094.
    3. José M. Labeaga & Xavier Labandeira & Xiral López-Otero, 2018. "Energy Tax Reform and Poverty Alleviation in Mexico," Working Papers 1801, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.
    4. Tajudeen, Ibrahim A., 2015. "Examining the role of energy efficiency and non-economic factors in energy demand and CO2 emissions in Nigeria: Policy implications," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 338-350.
    5. Park, Hojeong & Kwon, Hyucksoo, 2011. "Effects of consumer subsidy on household fuel switching from coal to cleaner fuels: A case study for anthracites in Korea," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1687-1693, March.
    6. Arthur, Maria de Fátima S.R. & Bond, Craig A. & Willson, Bryan, 2012. "Estimation of elasticities for domestic energy demand in Mozambique," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 398-409.
    7. repec:rfh:bbejor:v:6:y:2017:i:3:p:117-129 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Mathew Adagunodo, 2013. "Petroleum Products Pricing Reform in Nigeria: Welfare Analysis from Household Budget Survey," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 3(4), pages 459-472.
    9. Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto, 2017. "Elements for the development of public policies in the residential sector of Mexico based in the Energy Reform and the Energy Transition law," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 253-264.
    10. International Monetary Fund, 2010. "Islamic Republic of Iran; Selected Issues Paper," IMF Staff Country Reports 10/76, International Monetary Fund.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    demand elasticities; energy; subsidies; unit values;

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • Q31 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Demand and Supply; Prices

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