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Tax Incidence with Three Goods and Two Primary Factors: Theory and Applications

A three-good-two-primary-factor (3x2) general equilibrium model, along with parallel numerical illustrations, is developed to analyze the incidence and welfare cost of several taxes. The approach, blending theory and computed examples, enriches some well-known tax models and provides more insights than either the text-book two-by-two treatments or purely numerical models in areas such as environmental taxation and value-added tax (vat). It is ideal for considering factor taxes in intermediate-good industries (e.g., profit- and payroll taxes in mining industries) which are widely used but not much discussed in the literature. Their incidence, generally, turns out to be very different from similar taxes in final-good industries. A stylized application incorporating zero-rating and exemptions, two key features of the vat system in many countries, further illustrates the usefulness of this framework.

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Paper provided by University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics in its series UWO Department of Economics Working Papers with number 9914.

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Date of creation: 1999
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Handle: RePEc:uwo:uwowop:9914
Contact details of provider: Postal: Department of Economics, Reference Centre, Social Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2
Phone: 519-661-2111 Ext.85244
Web page: http://economics.uwo.ca/research/research_papers/department_working_papers.html

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  1. Bhatia, Kul B, 1982. "Intermediate Goods and the Theory of Tax Incidence," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 37(3), pages 318-38.
  2. Peter A. Diamond & J. A. Mirrlees, 1968. "Optimal Taxation and Public Production," Working papers 22, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  3. Myles, G.D., 1989. "Imperfect Competition And The Taxation Of Intermediate Goods," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 315, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  4. Shome, Parthasarathi, 1981. "The General Equilibrium Theory and Concepts of Tax Incidence in the Presence of Third or More Factors," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 36(1), pages 22-38.
  5. Lawrence Goulder, 1995. "Environmental taxation and the double dividend: A reader's guide," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 157-183, August.
  6. Bhatia, Kul B, 1989. "Short Run and Long Run in the Theory of Tax Incidence," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 44(3), pages 343-60.
  7. Bovenberg, A. Lans & Goulder, Lawrence H., 1997. "Costs of Environmentally Motivated Taxes in the Presence of Other Taxes: General Equilibrium Analyses," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 50(1), pages 59-88, March.
  8. Berndt, Ernst R & Wood, David O, 1979. "Engineering and Econometric Interpretations of Energy-Capital Complementarity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 342-54, June.
  9. James Poterba & Julio Rotemberg, 1995. "Environmental taxes on intermediate and final goods when both can be imported," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 2(2), pages 221-228, August.
  10. David F. Burgess, 1989. "Lower World Energy Prices: Good News or Bad News?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 22(3), pages 487-502, August.
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