IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

The General Equilibrium Incidence of Environmental Mandates

  • Don Fullerton
  • Garth Heutel

Pollution regulations affect factor demands, relative returns, production, and output prices. In our model, one sector includes pollution as an input that can be a complement or substitute for labor or capital. For each type of mandate, we find conditions where more burden is on labor or on capital. Stricter regulation does not always place less burden on the better substitute for pollution. Also, restrictions on pollution per unit output create an "output-subsidy effect" on factor prices that can reverse the usual output and substitution effects. We find analogous effects for a restriction on pollution per unit capital. (JEL H23, Q53, Q58)

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/pol.2.3.64
Download Restriction: no

File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/aej/pol/data/2008-0037_data.zip
Download Restriction: no

File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/aej/pol/app/2008-0037_app.pdf
Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to AEA members and institutional subscribers.

Article provided by American Economic Association in its journal American Economic Journal: Economic Policy.

Volume (Year): 2 (2010)
Issue (Month): 3 (August)
Pages: 64-89

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:aea:aejpol:v:2:y:2010:i:3:p:64-89
Note: DOI: 10.1257/pol.2.3.64
Contact details of provider: Web page: https://www.aeaweb.org/aej-policy
Email:


More information through EDIRC

Order Information: Web: https://www.aeaweb.org/subscribe.html

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Robison, H David, 1985. "Who Pays for Industrial Pollution Abatement?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(4), pages 702-06, November.
  2. Burtraw, Dallas & Parry, Ian & Goulder, Lawrence & Williams III, Roberton, 1998. "The Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Instruments for Environmental Protection in a Second-Best Setting," Discussion Papers dp-98-22, Resources For the Future.
  3. Becker Randy A, 2003. "Pollution Abatement Expenditure by U.S. Manufacturing Plants: Do Community Characteristics Matter?," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 3(2), pages 1-23, December.
  4. Fredriksson, Per G. & Vollebergh, Herman R. J. & Dijkgraaf, Elbert, 2004. "Corruption and energy efficiency in OECD countries: theory and evidence," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 207-231, March.
  5. Helfand, Gloria E, 1991. "Standards versus Standards: The Effects of Different Pollution Restrictions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(3), pages 622-34, June.
  6. Peter M. Mieszkowski, 1967. "On the Theory of Tax Incidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 250.
  7. Thomas, Vinod, 1980. "Welfare cost of pollution control," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 90-102, June.
  8. Carolyn Fischer & Alan K. Fox, 2007. "Output-Based Allocation of Emissions Permits for Mitigating Tax and Trade Interactions," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 83(4), pages 575-599.
  9. Parry, Ian, 2003. "Are Emissions Permits Regressive?," Discussion Papers dp-03-21, Resources For the Future.
  10. Richard Arnott, 1998. "Neutral Property Taxation," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 411., Boston College Department of Economics.
  11. Werner Antweiler & Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 2001. "Is Free Trade Good for the Environment?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 877-908, September.
  12. Lawrence H. Goulder & Lawrence H. Summers, 1987. "Tax Policy, Asset Prices, and Growth: A General Equilibrium Analysis," NBER Working Papers 2128, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Aidt, T.S.Toke Skovsgaard & Dutta, Jayasri, 2004. "Transitional politics: emerging incentive-based instruments in environmental regulation," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 458-479, May.
  14. Holger Sieg & V. Kerry Smith & H. Spencer Banzhaf & Randy Walsh, . "Estimating the General Equilibrium Benefits of Large Changes in Spatially Delineated Public Goods," GSIA Working Papers 2003-07, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
  15. Arnold C. Harberger, 1962. "The Incidence of the Corporation Income Tax," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 215.
  16. A. Lans Bovenberg & Lawrence H. Goulder & Derek J. Gurney, 2005. "Efficiency Costs of Meeting Industry-Distributional Constraints Under Environmental Permits and Taxes," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 36(4), pages 950-970, Winter.
  17. Fullerton, Don & Heutel, Garth, 2007. "The general equilibrium incidence of environmental taxes," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(3-4), pages 571-591, April.
  18. Newell, Richard G. & Pizer, William A., 2008. "Indexed regulation," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 221-233, November.
  19. Bovenberg, A. Lans & Goulder, Lawrence H., 1997. "Costs of Environmentally Motivated Taxes in the Presence of Other Taxes: General Equilibrium Analyses," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 50(1), pages 59-88, March.
  20. Peter M. Mieszkowski, 1970. "The Property Tax: An Excise Tax or a Profits Tax?," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 304, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  21. Burtraw, Dallas & Palmer, Karen & Bharvirkar, Ranjit & Paul, Anthony, 2001. "The Effect of Allowance Allocation on the Cost of Carbon Emission Trading," Discussion Papers dp-01-30-, Resources For the Future.
  22. Yohe, Gary W., 1979. "The backward incidence of pollution control--some comparative statics in general equilibrium," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 187-198, September.
  23. Leonard P. Gianessi & Henry M. Peskin, 1980. "The Distribution of the Costs of Federal Water Pollution Control Policy," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 56(1), pages 85-102.
  24. Ogaki, Masao, 1990. "The Indirect and Direct Substition Effects," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1271-75, December.
  25. Montero, Juan-Pablo, 2002. "Permits, Standards, and Technology Innovation," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 23-44, July.
  26. Lawrence H. Goulder & Ian W.H. Parry & Dallas Burtraw, 1997. "Revenue-Raising versus Other Approaches to Environmental Protection: The Critical Significance of Preexisting Tax Distortions," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 28(4), pages 708-731, Winter.
  27. Requate, Till & Unold, Wolfram, 2003. "Environmental policy incentives to adopt advanced abatement technology:: Will the true ranking please stand up?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 125-146, February.
  28. Jon D. Harford & Gordon Karp, 1983. "The Effects and Efficiencies of Different Pollution Standards," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 79-89, Apr-Jun.
  29. Das Monica & Das Sandwip K., 2007. "Can Stricter Environmental Regulations Increase Export of the Polluting Good?," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 1-22, June.
  30. Fischer, Carolyn & Fox, Alan, 2004. "Output-Based Allocations of Emissions Permits: Efficiency and Distributional Effects in a General Equilibrium Setting with Taxes and Trade," Discussion Papers dp-04-37, Resources For the Future.
  31. McKitrick, Ross, 2001. "The Design of Regulations Expressed as Ratios or Percentage Quotas," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 295-305, July.
  32. West, Sarah E. & Williams, R.C.Roberton III, 2004. "Estimates from a consumer demand system: implications for the incidence of environmental taxes," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 535-558, May.
  33. Hochman, Eithan & Zilberman, David, 1978. "Examination of Environmental Policies Using Production and Pollution Microparameter Distributions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(4), pages 739-60, July.
  34. Considine, Timothy J. & Larson, Donald F., 2004. "The environment as a factor of production," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3271, The World Bank.
  35. Bertaud, Alain & Brueckner, Jan K., 2005. "Analyzing building-height restrictions: predicted impacts and welfare costs," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 109-125, March.
  36. Swee Chua, 2003. "Does tighter environmental policy lead to a comparative advantage in less polluting goods?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 55(1), pages 25-35, January.
  37. Hazilla, Michael & Kopp, Raymond J, 1990. "Social Cost of Environmental Quality Regulations: A General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(4), pages 853-73, August.
  38. Metcalf, Gilbert E., 1999. "A Distributional Analysis of Green Tax Reforms," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 52(n. 4), pages 655-82, December.
  39. Gloria E. Helfand & Brett W. House, 1995. "Regulating Nonpoint Source Pollution Under Heterogeneous Conditions," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 77(4), pages 1024-1032.
  40. Carbone, Jared C. & Smith, V. Kerry, 2008. "Evaluating policy interventions with general equilibrium externalities," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(5-6), pages 1254-1274, June.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aea:aejpol:v:2:y:2010:i:3:p:64-89. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jane Voros)

or (Michael P. Albert)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.