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Potenze economiche emergenti: Cina e India a confronto.Istruzione e diseguaglianze

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La Cina e l’India sono state protagoniste della letteratura economica recente non solo grazie alla rapida crescita economica che le caratterizza ma anche a causa della preoccupazione crescente per gli alti livelli di disuguaglianze sociali che si sono registrati parallelamente a tale crescita. L’obiettivo del paper è quello di studiare ed evidenziare analogie e differenze nella distribuzione del reddito e dell’istruzione nei due paesi. Dallo studio emerge come, a seguito delle riforme economiche, con l’apertura ai mercati internazionali e con l’inevitabile cambiamento strutturale dell’economia, in entrambi i paesi un ruolo crescente nella determinazione del reddito individuale sia giocato dal livello di istruzione che un individuo consegue e dalla conseguente capacità di far fronte alle nuove opportunità. La futura distribuzione del reddito cinese ed indiana dipenderà pertanto anche dal modo in cui l’accesso all’istruzione sarà garantito. In Cina le politiche redistributive si dovrebbero concentrare soprattutto sull’equità nell’accesso all’alta istruzione, mentre l’India necessita di politiche ad ampio raggio per portare una quota ancora rilevante della popolazione fuori dalla condizione di analfabetismo e bassa istruzione. Inoltre, nel caso dell’India la lotta alle disuguaglianze non può prescindere dalle dimensioni di disparità sociale che hanno caratterizzato il paese storicamente e, pertanto, dovrebbe essere mirata al sostegno dei gruppi più emarginati, come donne e caste inferiori, degli stati più poveri e della popolazione residente nel settore rurale.

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  • Saccone Donatella, 2011. "Potenze economiche emergenti: Cina e India a confronto.Istruzione e diseguaglianze," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201113, University of Turin.
  • Handle: RePEc:uto:dipeco:201113
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