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Potenze economiche emergenti: Cina e India a confronto.Istruzione e diseguaglianze

La Cina e l’India sono state protagoniste della letteratura economica recente non solo grazie alla rapida crescita economica che le caratterizza ma anche a causa della preoccupazione crescente per gli alti livelli di disuguaglianze sociali che si sono registrati parallelamente a tale crescita. L’obiettivo del paper è quello di studiare ed evidenziare analogie e differenze nella distribuzione del reddito e dell’istruzione nei due paesi. Dallo studio emerge come, a seguito delle riforme economiche, con l’apertura ai mercati internazionali e con l’inevitabile cambiamento strutturale dell’economia, in entrambi i paesi un ruolo crescente nella determinazione del reddito individuale sia giocato dal livello di istruzione che un individuo consegue e dalla conseguente capacità di far fronte alle nuove opportunità. La futura distribuzione del reddito cinese ed indiana dipenderà pertanto anche dal modo in cui l’accesso all’istruzione sarà garantito. In Cina le politiche redistributive si dovrebbero concentrare soprattutto sull’equità nell’accesso all’alta istruzione, mentre l’India necessita di politiche ad ampio raggio per portare una quota ancora rilevante della popolazione fuori dalla condizione di analfabetismo e bassa istruzione. Inoltre, nel caso dell’India la lotta alle disuguaglianze non può prescindere dalle dimensioni di disparità sociale che hanno caratterizzato il paese storicamente e, pertanto, dovrebbe essere mirata al sostegno dei gruppi più emarginati, come donne e caste inferiori, degli stati più poveri e della popolazione residente nel settore rurale.

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Paper provided by University of Turin in its series Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers with number 201113.

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Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:uto:dipeco:201113
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  1. Heckman, James J., 2005. "China's human capital investment," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 50-70.
  2. Fang, Cheng & Zhang, Xiaobo & Fan, Shenggen, 2002. "Emergence of urban poverty and inequality in China: evidence from household survey," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 430-443, December.
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  5. Li, Haizheng, 2003. "Economic transition and returns to education in China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 317-328, June.
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  7. Audrey Siew Kim Lim & Kam Ki Tang, 2006. "Education Inequality, Human Capital Inequality And The Kuznets Curve," CAMA Working Papers 2006-08, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  8. Vittorio Valli & Donatella Saccone, 2009. "Structural Change and Economic Development in China and India," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 6(1), pages 101-129, June.
  9. Kanbur, Ravi & Zhang, Xiaobo, 2003. "Spatial Inequality in Education and Health Care in China," CEPR Discussion Papers 4136, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Daniele Checchi, 2001. "Education, Inequality and Income Inequality," STICERD - Distributional Analysis Research Programme Papers 52, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
  11. Yao, Shujie & Zhang, Zongyi & Hanmer, Lucia, 2004. "Growing inequality and poverty in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 145-163.
  12. Hannum, Emily & Wang, Meiyan, 2006. "Geography and educational inequality in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 253-265.
  13. Dwayne Benjamin & Loren Brandt & John Giles & Sangui Wang, 2005. "Income Inequality During China's Economic Transition," Working Papers tecipa-238, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  14. Wei, Shang-Jin & Wu, Yi, 2001. "Globalization and Inequality: Evidence from within China," CEPR Discussion Papers 3088, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  15. Lu, Ding, 2002. "Rural-urban income disparity: impact of growth, allocative efficiency, and local growth welfare," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 419-429, December.
  16. James K. Galbraith & Ludmila Krytynskaia & Qifei Wang, 2004. "The Experience of Rising Inequality in Russia and China during the Transition," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 1(1), pages 87-106, June.
  17. Ram, Rati, 1990. "Educational Expansion and Schooling Inequality: International Evidence and Some Implications," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 266-74, May.
  18. Checchi, Daniele & Garcia-Penalosa, Cecilia, 2004. "Risk and the distribution of human capital," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 53-61, January.
  19. Angus Deaton & Jean Dreze, 2002. "Poverty and Inequality in India: A Re-Examination," Working Papers 184, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
  20. Wagstaff, Adam, 2005. "Decomposing changes in income inequality into vertical and horizontal redistribution and reranking, withapplications to China and Vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3559, The World Bank.
  21. Chaudhuri, Shubham & Ravallion, Martin, 2006. "Partially awakened giants : uneven growth in China and India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4069, The World Bank.
  22. Puja Vasudeva Dutta, 2005. "Accounting for Wage Inequality in India," PRUS Working Papers 29, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
  23. Thomas, Vinod & Wang, Yan & Fan, Xibo, 2001. "Measuring education inequality - Gini coefficients of education," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2525, The World Bank.
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