IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Consensus vs. freedom of consensus upon freedom? From Washington disorder to the rediscovery of Keynes


  • Cedrini Mario



The paper retraces the history of the debate on the Washington Consensus according to the four-stage partition Consensus, Confusion, Contention, Conclusion, with particular attention to the criticisms evoked by the use of it as a tool for the “integrationist agenda” of the Nineties. We argue that the excessive shrinking in policy space available to developing countries is among the key factors explaining why the saga has rapidly come to a Conclusion, leaving room to the rediscovery of the “embedded liberalism” of Bretton Woods. It is our aim to show, however, that Keynes’s plan for a new international order inspired by a consensus on freedom rather than discipline, is still the most relevant model for a new system of national capitalisms enhancing member countries’ freedom to choose.

Suggested Citation

  • Cedrini Mario, 2007. "Consensus vs. freedom of consensus upon freedom? From Washington disorder to the rediscovery of Keynes," CESMEP Working Papers 200708, University of Turin.
  • Handle: RePEc:uto:cesmep:200708

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ayhan Kose & Kenneth Rogoff & Eswar S Prasad & Shang-Jin Wei, 2003. "Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries; Some Empirical Evidence," IMF Occasional Papers 220, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Michael P. Dooley & David Folkerts-Landau & Peter M. Garber, 2005. "An essay on the revived Bretton Woods system," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Feb.
    3. Ha-Joon Chang & Ilene Grabel, 2004. "Reclaiming development from the Washington consensus," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(2), pages 273-291.
    4. Ruggie, John Gerard, 1982. "International regimes, transactions, and change: embedded liberalism in the postwar economic order," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 36(02), pages 379-415, March.
    5. José Antonio Ocampo, 2004. "Beyond the Washington consensus: what do we mean?," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(2), pages 293-314.
    6. J. Stiglitz, 1998. "More Instruments and Broader Goals: Moving toward the PostWashington Consensus," VOPROSY ECONOMIKI, N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", vol. 8.
    7. Jane D'Arista, 2002. "Moving Beyond the Washington Consensus," International Journal of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(4), pages 22-34.
    8. Paul Davidson, 1993. "Reforming the World's Money," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 15(2), pages 153-179, January.
    9. Gore, Charles, 2000. "The Rise and Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 789-804, May.
    10. Feldstein, Martin, 1999. "A Self-Help Guide for Emerging Markets," Scholarly Articles 2961700, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    11. Claude Gnos & Louis-Philippe Rochon, 2004. "Reforming the international financial and monetary system: from Keynes to Davidson and Stiglitz," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(4), pages 613-629.
    12. James M. Boughton, 2004. "The IMF and the force of History; Ten Events and Ten Ideas that Have Shaped the Institution," IMF Working Papers 04/75, International Monetary Fund.
    13. Williamson, John, 1985. "On the System in Bretton Woods," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 74-79, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uto:cesmep:200708. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Piero Cavaleri) or (Marina Grazioli). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.