Organizational Innovations of Firms from the 1850s in the USA and Japan
Organizational Innovations (OIs) are defined as disembodied technology as against embodied technology or technical (technological) innovations. The firms, as we see them today in the USA, Japan and many other countries, are organized according to OIs that took place in the USA and Japan in the last 150 years or so. A historical review during that period will identify OIs in these two countries. OIs such as integration of production and distribution, focal factories, and just-in-time cum quality control (JIT/QC) are more thoroughly described.
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- Sanidas, E., 2001. "The Successful Imitation of the Japanese Lean Production System by American Firms: Impact on American Economic Growth," Economics Working Papers wp01-02, School of Economics, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
- Langlois, Richard N. & Robertson, Paul L., 1989. "Explaining Vertical Integration: Lessons from the American Automobile Industry," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 49(02), pages 361-375, June.
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