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Systematic Management: The Search for Order and Integration


  • Litterer, Joseph A.


A comparative examination of late nineteenth-century worker productivity, machine utilization, and management methodology reveals the importance of process-oriented organization in American factories, where the highest technical skills were directed not at making products, as in Europe, but at making production lines. This orientation, together with a rapidly changing environment, required a particular kind of management and a new awareness of the management function.

Suggested Citation

  • Litterer, Joseph A., 1961. "Systematic Management: The Search for Order and Integration," Business History Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 35(4), pages 461-476, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:cup:buhirw:v:35:y:1961:i:04:p:461-476_04

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    Cited by:

    1. S├ębastien Damart & Albert David & Milena Klasing Chen & Dominique Laousse, 2018. "Turning managers into management designers: an experiment," Post-Print hal-01894955, HAL.
    2. Peter B. Meyer, 2005. "Turbulence, Inequality, and Cheap Steel," Working Papers 375, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
    3. S├ębastien Damart & Albert David & Milena Klasing Chen & Dominique Laousse, 2018. "Turning managers into management designers : an experiment," Post-Print hal-01921127, HAL.
    4. Sanidas, E., 2002. "Organizational Innovations of Firms from the 1850s in the USA and Japan," Economics Working Papers wp02-06, School of Economics, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    5. Richard P. Adelstein, 2003. "Knowledge and Power in the Mechanical Firm: Planning for Profit in Austrian Perspective," Wesleyan Economics Working Papers 2005-015, Wesleyan University, Department of Economics.
    6. Alan McKinlay & Chris Carter & Eric Pezet & Stewart Clegg, 2010. "Using Foucault to make strategy," Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 23(8), pages 1012-1031, October.

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