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Wage Norms, Capital Accumulation and Unemployment: A Post Keynesian View

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  • Engelbert Stockhammer

Abstract

The paper presents a Post Keynesian view of unemployment. It argues, firstly, that the effective labour demand need not be downward sloping with respect to real wages and aggregate demand need not be downward sloping with respect to inflation; secondly, that there is a broad case for unemployment hysteresis, understood as endogeneity of the NAIRU, based on social norms in wage bargaining and on the supply-side effects of capital accumulation; and, thirdly that, much as Keynes had argued, capital investment (rather than labour market institutions) is the key variable to explain changes in aggregate unemployment performance across countries and over time. Overall, the paper advocates a Keynesian view of the NAIRU where effective demand determines unemployment in the short run and the deviation of actual unemployment from the NAIRU determines the change in inflation. In the medium term the NAIRU is endogenous and follows actual unemployment.

Suggested Citation

  • Engelbert Stockhammer, 2011. "Wage Norms, Capital Accumulation and Unemployment: A Post Keynesian View," Working Papers wp253, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
  • Handle: RePEc:uma:periwp:wp253
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Arestis, Philip & Mariscal, Iris Biefang-Frisancho, 1998. "Capital shortages and asymmetries in UK unemployment," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 189-204, June.
    2. George A. Akerlof, 2009. "How Human Psychology Drives the Economy and Why It Matters," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1175-1175.
    3. Rowthorn, R E, 1977. "Conflict, Inflation and Money," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 1(3), pages 215-239, September.
    4. Eckhard Hein & Engelbert Stockhammer, 2010. "Macroeconomic Policy Mix, Employment and Inflation in a Post-Keynesian Alternative to the New Consensus Model," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 317-354.
    5. Basil J. Moore, 1983. "Unpacking the Post Keynesian Black Box: Bank Lending and the Money Supply," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(4), pages 537-556, July.
    6. Philip Arestis & Malcolm Sawyer, 2005. "Aggregate demand, conflict and capacity in the inflationary process," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(6), pages 959-974, November.
    7. Andrea Bassanini & Romain Duval, 2006. "Employment Patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the Role of Policies and Institutions," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 35, OECD Publishing.
    8. Skott, Peter, 2005. "Fairness as a source of hysteresis in employment and relative wages," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 305-331, July.
    9. Philip Arestis & Michelle Baddeley & Malcolm Sawyer, 2007. "The Relationship Between Capital Stock, Unemployment And Wages In Nine Emu Countries," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(2), pages 125-148, April.
    10. Stockhammer, Engelbert & Onaran, Ozlem, 2004. "Accumulation, distribution and employment: a structural VAR approach to a Kaleckian macro model," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 421-447, December.
    11. Engelbert Stockhammer & Özlem Onaran & Stefan Ederer, 2009. "Functional income distribution and aggregate demand in the Euro area," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(1), pages 139-159, January.
    12. Olivier Blanchard, 2006. "European unemployment: the evolution of facts and ideas," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 21(45), pages 5-59, January.
    13. Eckhard Hein & Lena Vogel, 2008. "Distribution and growth reconsidered: empirical results for six OECD countries," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(3), pages 479-511, May.
    14. Dean Baker & Andrew Glyn & David Howell & John Schmitt, 2002. "Labor Market Institutions and Unemployment: A Critical Assessment of the Cross-Country Evidence," SCEPA working paper series. SCEPA's main areas of research are macroeconomic policy, inequality and poverty, and globalization. 2002-17, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA), The New School.
    15. Philip Arestis & Iris Biefang-Frisancho Mariscal, 1997. "Conflict, Effort and Capital Stock in UK Wage Determination," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 179-193, October.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Zwickl, Klara & Disslbacher, Franziska & Stagl, Sigrid, 2016. "Work-sharing for a sustainable economy," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 246-253.
    2. Engelbert Stockhammer & Dimitris P. Sotiropoulos, 2014. "Rebalancing the Euro Area: The Costs of Internal Devaluation," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2), pages 210-233, April.
    3. Zwickl, Klara & Disslbacher, Franziska & Stagl, Sigrid, 2015. "Work-sharing for a sustainable economy," Ecological Economic Papers 4564, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business.
    4. Bruno Damásio & Diogo Martins, 2017. "Do Labour Market Reforms Pay Off? Unemployment and Capital Accumulation in Portugal," Working Papers Department of Economics 2017/01, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Universidade de Lisboa.
    5. Engelbert Stockhammer & Ozlem Onaran, 2013. "Wage-led growth: theory, evidence, policy," Review of Keynesian Economics, Edward Elgar Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 61-78, January.
    6. Paolo Piacentini, 2016. "The demand-side vs. the supply–side in the analysis of employment: the potentials for the use of “employment multipliers”," Working Papers 0023, ASTRIL - Associazione Studi e Ricerche Interdisciplinari sul Lavoro.
    7. Asjad Naqvi & Engelbert Stockhammer, 2017. "Directed technological change in a post-Keynesian ecological macromodel," Working Papers PKWP1714, Post Keynesian Economics Society (PKES).
    8. Engelbert Stockhammer & Alexander Guschanski & Karsten Köhler, 2014. "Unemployment, capital accumulation and labour market institutions in the Great Recession," European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention, Edward Elgar Publishing, vol. 11(2), pages 182-194, September.
    9. Ioanna C. Bardakas, 2016. "Structural and cyclical factors of Greece’s current account balances: a note," Working Papers 206, Bank of Greece.
    10. repec:wfo:wstudy:58684 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Klara Zwickl & Franziska Disslbacher & Sigrid Stagl, 2015. "Work-sharing for a sustainable economy," Ecological Economics Papers ieep4, Institute of Ecological Economics.
    12. Nicos Christodoulakis & Christos Axioglou, 2016. "Underinvestment and unemployment: the double hazard in the euro area," Working Papers 205, Bank of Greece.
    13. António Afonso & André Albuquerque, 2017. "Sovereign Credit Rating Mismatches," Working Papers Department of Economics 2017/02, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Universidade de Lisboa.
    14. Klara Zwickl & Franziska Disslbacher & Sigrid Stagl, 2016. "Work-sharing for a sustainable economy," WWWforEurope Working Papers series 111, WWWforEurope.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E12 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E25 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Aggregate Factor Income Distribution

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