Perception of corruption in Uruguay: the effects of the sector of employment, life-course adjustments and education
In 2004, Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index ranks Uruguay at 28, seven positions higher than in 2001, scores changed from 5.1 to 6.2 (a higher score means less perceived corruption). In addition, there were no relevant corruption scandals in that period. Hence, we should ask: what are the foundations of corruption perception? We assess this at the micro-level. Our dataset is the module on Citizenship of the International Social Survey Program (that was carried out in 2004) and we estimate ordered a probit model. We find that some economic variables are significant. In particular we show that those who work in private enterprises tend to perceive higher levels of corruption as do unemployed people. Hence those who may be on the supply side of the bribe “market” perceive a higher level of corruption than those on the demand side (civil servants). In addition, our main contribution to the existence literature is showing that socio-demographic variables play a relevant role. We show that those who belong to the youngest group, who took, at least, high school studies and those who belong to a religious group are more likely to perceive a higher level of corruption.
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