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How Feminine is Corporate America?

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  • Gabrielle Wanzenried

Abstract

The paper provides an up-to-date description of the distribution of female top executives in US corporations. Our data comprise a total of 54'380 observations from 2'489 firms over the time period from 1992 to 2001. Our results suggest that women are working for smaller, faster growing and more profitable firms. Further, female executives earn less than their male colleagues, but the difference is much smaller for CEOs. In addition, we show that women in CEO positions face stronger incentive schemes compared with their male colleagues. Finally, compensation practices significantly differ between CEOs and other top executives

Suggested Citation

  • Gabrielle Wanzenried, 2003. "How Feminine is Corporate America?," Diskussionsschriften dp0314, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
  • Handle: RePEc:ube:dpvwib:dp0314
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Raghuram G. Rajan & Julie Wulf, 2006. "The Flattening Firm: Evidence from Panel Data on the Changing Nature of Corporate Hierarchies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 759-773, November.
    2. George P. Baker & Brian J. Hall, 1998. "CEO Incentives and Firm Size," NBER Working Papers 6868, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Jensen, Michael C & Murphy, Kevin J, 1990. "Performance Pay and Top-Management Incentives," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(2), pages 225-264, April.
    4. Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. " The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
    5. Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
    6. Murphy, Kevin J., 1999. "Executive compensation," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 38, pages 2485-2563 Elsevier.
    7. Bartlett, Robin L & Miller, Timothy I, 1985. "Executive Compensation: Female Executives and Networking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 266-270, May.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Female executives; Executive compensation; Gender;

    JEL classification:

    • M52 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Personnel Economics - - - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J82 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Labor Force Composition

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