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Voice at Work

Author

Listed:
  • Yosh Halberstam

Abstract

In the first large-scale study on voice, audio data on lawyers at the top U.S. law firms–a male dominated work environment–show that female lawyers alternate between two voice frequency modes: a primary female mode at about 200 Hz as well as a secondary female mode at about 100 Hz that is coextensive with the primary (and only) male voice frequency mode. This tendency is stronger among female associates than among female partners, and does not replicate for male lawyers or female assistants. Evidence of differences driven by firm heterogeneity is comparatively insignificant, indicating market-wide trends in workplace behavior.

Suggested Citation

  • Yosh Halberstam, 2019. "Voice at Work," Working Papers tecipa-636, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:tor:tecipa:tecipa-636
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    File URL: https://www.economics.utoronto.ca/public/workingPapers/tecipa-636.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:ags:stataj:116236 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. David Austen-Smith & Ronald G. Fryer, 2005. "An Economic Analysis of 'Acting White'," Discussion Papers 1399, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    3. George A. Akerlof, 1980. "A Theory of Social Custom, of which Unemployment may be One Consequence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 94(4), pages 749-775.
    4. Carlo V. Fiorio, 2004. "Confidence intervals for kernel density estimation," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(2), pages 168-179, June.
    5. David Austen-Smith & Roland G. Fryer, 2005. "An Economic Analysis of "Acting White"," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(2), pages 551-583.
    6. Biddle, Jeff E & Hamermesh, Daniel S, 1998. "Beauty, Productivity, and Discrimination: Lawyers' Looks and Lucre," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 172-201, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    labor markets; gender identity; social norms; codeswitching; voice frequency;

    JEL classification:

    • D91 - Microeconomics - - Micro-Based Behavioral Economics - - - Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J44 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Professional Labor Markets and Occupations
    • M14 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - Corporate Culture; Diversity; Social Responsibility
    • Z10 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - General

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