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Identification and Counterfactuals in Dynamic Models of Market Entry and Exit

  • Victor Aguirregabiria
  • Junichi Suzuki

This paper addresses a fundamental identification problem in the structural estimation of dynamic oligopoly models of market entry and exit. Using the standard datasets in existing empirical applications, three components of a firm's profit function are not separately identified: the fixed cost of an incumbent firm, the entry cost of a new entrant, and the scrap value of an exiting firm. We study the implications of this result on the power of this class of models to identify the effects of different comparative static exercises and counterfactual public policies. First, we derive a closed-form relationship between the three unknown structural functions and the two functions that are identified from the data. We use this relationship to provide the correct interpretation of the estimated objects that are obtained under the `normalization assumptions' considered in most applications. Second, we characterize a class of counterfactual experiments that are identified using the estimated model, despite the non-separate identification of the three primitives. Third, we show that there is a general class of counterfactual experiments of economic relevance that are not identified. We present a numerical example that illustrates how ignoring the non-identification of these counterfactuals (i.e., making a `normalization assumption' on some of the three primitives) generates sizable biases that can modify even the sign of the estimated effects. Finally, we discuss possible solutions to address these identification problems.

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Paper provided by University of Toronto, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number tecipa-475.

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Date of creation: 02 Feb 2013
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Handle: RePEc:tor:tecipa:tecipa-475
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  1. Junichi Suzuki, 2013. "Land Use Regulation As A Barrier To Entry: Evidence From The Texas Lodging Industry," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 54(2), pages 495-523, 05.
  2. Ariel Pakes & Michael Ostrovsky & Steven Berry, 2007. "Simple estimators for the parameters of discrete dynamic games (with entry/exit examples)," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(2), pages 373-399, 06.
  3. Andriy Norets & Xun Tang, 2010. "Semiparametric Inference in Dynamic Binary Choice Models, Second Version," PIER Working Paper Archive 12-017, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 17 Apr 2012.
  4. Ulrich Doraszelski & Mark Satterthwaite, 2010. "Computable Markov-perfect industry dynamics," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 41(2), pages 215-243.
  5. Sanghamitra Das & Mark J. Roberts & James R. Tybout, 2007. "Market Entry Costs, Producer Heterogeneity, and Export Dynamics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 75(3), pages 837-873, 05.
  6. Bresnahan, Timothy F & Reiss, Peter C, 1991. "Entry and Competition in Concentrated Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(5), pages 977-1009, October.
  7. Ericson, Richard & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Markov-Perfect Industry Dynamics: A Framework for Empirical Work," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(1), pages 53-82, January.
  8. Aguirregabiria, Victor & Ho, Chun-Yu, 2012. "A dynamic oligopoly game of the US airline industry: Estimation and policy experiments," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 168(1), pages 156-173.
  9. V. Joseph Hotz & Robert A. Miller, 1992. "Conditional Choice Probabilities and the Estimation of Dynamic Models," Working Papers 9202, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago.
  10. Thierry Magnac & David Thesmar, 2002. "Identifying Dynamic Discrete Decision Processes," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(2), pages 801-816, March.
  11. Timothy Dunne & Shawn D. Klimek & Mark J. Roberts & Daniel Yi Xu, 2009. "Entry, exit and the determinants of market structure," Working Paper 0907, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  12. Victor Aguirregabiria & Pedro Mira, 2004. "Sequential Estimation of Dynamic Discrete Games," Industrial Organization 0406006, EconWPA.
  13. Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
  14. Aamir Hashmi, 2012. "The Relationship between Market Structure and Innovation in Industry Equilibrium: A Case Study of the Global Automobile Industry," 2012 Meeting Papers 356, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  15. Bresnahan, Timothy F & Reiss, Peter C, 1990. "Entry in Monopoly Markets," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(4), pages 531-53, October.
  16. Timothy F. BRESNAHAN & Peter C.REISS, 1994. "Measuring the Importance of Sunk Costs," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 34, pages 181-217.
  17. Stephen Ryan, 2005. "The Costs of Environmental Regulation in a Concentrated Industry," Working Papers 0510, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.
  18. Allan Collard‐Wexler, 2013. "Demand Fluctuations in the Ready‐Mix Concrete Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(3), pages 1003-1037, 05.
  19. Ellickson, Paul B. & Misra, Sanjog & Nair, Harikesh S., 2011. "Repositioning Dynamics and Pricing Strategy," Research Papers 2075, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  20. Steven Berry & Amit Gandhi & Philip Haile, 2011. "Connected Substitutes and Invertibility of Demand," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1806, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  21. Aguirregabiria, Victor, 2010. "Another Look at the Identification of Dynamic Discrete Decision Processes: An Application to Retirement Behavior," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 28(2), pages 201-218.
  22. Bresnahan, Timothy F. & Reiss, Peter C., 1991. "Empirical models of discrete games," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1-2), pages 57-81.
  23. Aamir Rafique Hashmi & Johannes Van Biesebroeck, 2010. "Market Structure and Innovation: A Dynamic Analysis of the Global Automobile Industry," NBER Working Papers 15959, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  24. Andrew Sweeting, 2013. "Dynamic Product Positioning in Differentiated Product Markets: The Effect of Fees for Musical Performance Rights on the Commercial Radio Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(5), pages 1763-1803, 09.
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