The Optimal structure of Liquidity Provided by a Self Financed Central Bank
Central banks have consistently differentiated the return on the securities they have issued (money and national debt). In contrast, first best efficiency demands that these securities earn the same return: the return on capital. A self-financed central bank, without capital and taxes, cannot achieve this first best. The resulting gaps between the return on capital and the returns on public securities are implicit taxes. These taxes increase the opportunity costs of the commodities financed with the liquidation of these securities, so they are indirect taxes on these commodities. Because taxes on investment are less efficient than taxes on consumption, securities intensive in financing investment should be taxed at a lower rate than securities intensive in financing consumption. This is feasible if national debt is investment intensive. Then, this security should earn interest and be imposed artificial costs on second hand trading. In addition, because money is specialized in providing short term liquidity, raising the return on national debt delays expenditure toward the future. Hence, the payment of interest on national debt brings a windfall of resources during transitions across balanced paths in addition to the long term welfare gains of this policy. Similar arguments apply to short and long term maturities of the national debt.
|Date of creation:||26 Jan 1999|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (416) 978-5283
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lawrence H. Summers, 1982. "The Nonadjustment of Nominal Interest Rates: A Study of the Fisher Effect," NBER Working Papers 0836, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Aiyagari, S. Rao & Gertler, Mark, 1991.
"Asset returns with transactions costs and uninsured individual risk,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 311-331, June.
- S Rao Aiyagari & Mark Gertler, 1997. "Asset Returns with transaction costs and uninsured individual risk," Levine's Working Paper Archive 648, David K. Levine.
- S. Rao Aiyagari & Mark Gertler, 1990. "Asset Returns with Transactions Cost and Uninsured Risk: A Stage III Exercise," NBER Working Papers 3481, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Foley, Duncan K & Hellwig, Martin F, 1975.
"Asset Management with Trading Uncertainty,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 327-46, July.
- Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1980. "Equilibrium in a Pure Currency Economy," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 18(2), pages 203-20, April.
- Barro, Robert J., 1990.
"Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogeneous Growth,"
3451296, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Barro, Robert J, 1990. "Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages S103-26, October.
- Barro, R.J., 1988. "Government Spending In A Simple Model Of Endogenous Growth," RCER Working Papers 130, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- Robert J. Barro, 1988. "Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth," NBER Working Papers 2588, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Romer, David, 1993. "Why Should Governments Issue Bonds?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(2), pages 163-75, May.
- Schreft, Stacey L. & Smith, Bruce D., 1997.
"Money, Banking, and Capital Formation,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 157-182, March.
- Alvarez, Fernando & Stokey, Nancy L., 1998. "Dynamic Programming with Homogeneous Functions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 167-189, September.
- Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000.
"Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity,"
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 14-23.
- Fried, Joel & Howitt, Peter, 1983. "The Effects of Inflation on Real Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 968-80, December.
- Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1996.
"Private and Public Supply of Liquidity,"
NBER Working Papers
5817, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Faig, Miquel, 1988. "Characterization of the optimal tax on money when it functions as a medium of exchange," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 137-148, July.
- Woodford, Michael, 1990. "Public Debt as Private Liquidity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 382-88, May.
- Bryant, John, 1980. " Nontransferable Interest-Bearing National Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(4), pages 1027-31, September.
- Bansal, Ravi & Coleman, Wilbur John, II, 1996. "A Monetary Explanation of the Equity Premium, Term Premium, and Risk-Free Rate Puzzles," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(6), pages 1135-71, December.
- Bryant, John & Wallace, Neil, 1979. "The Inefficiency of Interest-bearing National Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(2), pages 365-81, April.
- Kimbrough, Kent P., 1986. "The optimum quantity of money rule in the theory of public finance," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 277-284, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tor:tecipa:faig-99-01. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (RePEc Maintainer)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.