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Scarce Collateral and Bank Reserves

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  • Miquel Faig
  • Gregory Gagnon

Abstract

If collateral for bank loans is scarce and as a result access to secured loans is restricted, the allocation of resources is inefficient. Anticipating future borrowing constraints, individuals over-invest in collateralized types of capital, whereas consumption and investment expenditures are inefficiently low while individuals are borrowing constrained. The dual counterpart of this misallocation of resources is inefficiently low interest rates. In this situation, bank reserves play a positive welfare role by increasing not only bank lending rates, but also, paradoxically, bank deposit rates. As a result, in economies with scarce collateral the optimal reserves requirement ratio is positive.

Suggested Citation

  • Miquel Faig & Gregory Gagnon, 2003. "Scarce Collateral and Bank Reserves," Working Papers faig-03-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:tor:tecipa:faig-03-01
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bewley, Truman, 1983. "A Difficulty with the Optimum Quantity of Money," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(5), pages 1485-1504, September.
    2. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Private and Public Supply of Liquidity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 1-40, February.
    3. Faig, Miquel, 2000. "The Optimal Structure of Liquidity Provided by a Self-Financed Central Bank," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(4), pages 746-765, November.
    4. Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000. "Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 14-23.
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    6. Woodford, Michael, 1990. "Public Debt as Private Liquidity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 382-388, May.
    7. Diaz-Gimenez, Javier & Prescott, Edward C. & Fitzgerald, Terry & Alvarez, Fernando, 1992. "Banking in computable general equilibrium economies," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 16(3-4), pages 533-559.
    8. Williamson, Stephen D, 1987. "Financial Intermediation, Business Failures, and Real Business Cycles," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(6), pages 1196-1216, December.
    9. Duncan K. Foley & Martin F. Hellwig, 1975. "Asset Management with Trading Uncertainty," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(3), pages 327-346.
    10. Faig, Miquel, 2000. "Money with Idiosyncratic Uninsurable Returns to Capital," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 218-240, October.
    11. Huggett, Mark, 1993. "The risk-free rate in heterogeneous-agent incomplete-insurance economies," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 17(5-6), pages 953-969.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    collateral; banking; reserves; borrowing constraint; reserves requirement.;

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E50 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - General
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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