IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/stc/stcp5e/2005036e.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Trade Credit and Credit Rationing in Canadian Firms

Author

Listed:
  • Cunningham, Rose

Abstract

Burkart and Ellingsen (2004) develop a model of trade credit and bank credit rationing which predicts that trade credit will be used by medium-wealth and low-wealth firms to help ease bank credit rationing. This paper tests this and other predictions of the Burkart and Ellingsen model using a large sample of more than 28,000 Canadian firms. The author uses an endogenous method to divide the firms into the appropriate wealth categories rather than arbitrarily selecting firms likely to be credit-rationed. The data support the main predictions of the model quite well. The author finds that medium-wealth firms substitute trade credit for bank credit consistent with using it to alleviate bank credit rationing. The low-wealth firms use trade credit but it is positively linked to bank credit, suggesting those firms are constrained in both bank credit and trade credit markets, and so cannot use trade credit to adjust as much to negative shocks. The findings also suggest that there are very few unconstrained, high-wealth Canadian firms. The author also finds low-wealth, declining and distressed firms supply proportionally more trade credit than firms with healthier balance sheets.

Suggested Citation

  • Cunningham, Rose, 2005. "Trade Credit and Credit Rationing in Canadian Firms," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2005036e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  • Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp5e:2005036e
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=11F0027M2005036&lang=eng
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Smith, Janet Kiholm, 1987. "Trade Credit and Informational Asymmetry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(4), pages 863-872, September.
    2. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1997. "Trade Credit: Theories and Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(3), pages 661-691.
    3. Mike Burkart & Tore Ellingsen, 2004. "In-Kind Finance: A Theory of Trade Credit," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 569-590, June.
    4. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 1995. "The Effect of Credit Market Competition on Lending Relationships," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 407-443.
    5. Nilsen, Jeffrey H, 2002. "Trade Credit and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(1), pages 226-253, February.
    6. Mian, Shehzad L & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1992. "Accounts Receivable Management Policy: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(1), pages 169-200, March.
    7. Schwartz, Robert A., 1974. "An Economic Model of Trade Credit," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(4), pages 643-657, September.
    8. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
    9. Brennan, Michael J & Maksimovic, Vojislav & Zechner, Josef, 1988. " Vendor Financing," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(5), pages 1127-1141, December.
    10. Biais, Bruno & Gollier, Christian, 1997. "Trade Credit and Credit Rationing," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 10(4), pages 903-937.
    11. Jain, Neelam, 2001. "Monitoring costs and trade credit," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 89-110.
    12. Bitros, George C, 1979. "Neoclassical Theory of Trade Credit: A Critique and A Reformulation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 199-202, January.
    13. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2001. "Firms as financial intermediaries - evidence from trade credit data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2696, The World Bank.
    14. Emery, Gary W., 1987. "An Optimal Financial Response to Variable Demand," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 209-225, June.
    15. J. Stephen Ferris, 1981. "A Transactions Theory of Trade Credit Use," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 96(2), pages 243-270.
    16. Nadiri, M Ishaq, 1969. "The Determinants of Trade Credit in the U.S. Total Manufacturing Sector," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 408-423, July.
    17. Chee K. Ng & Janet Kiholm Smith & Richard L. Smith, 1999. "Evidence on the Determinants of Credit Terms Used in Interfirm Trade," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1109-1129, June.
    18. Michael S. Long & Ileen B. Malitz & S. Abraham Ravid, 1993. "Trade Credit, Quality Guarantees, and Product," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 22(4), Winter.
    19. Emery, Gary W., 1984. "A Pure Financial Explanation for Trade Credit," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(3), pages 271-285, September.
    20. Ross, Donald G. & Pike, Richard H., 1997. "Export credit risks and the trade credit offer: some Canadian evidence," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 55-70, April.
    21. Benjamin S. Wilner, 2000. "The Exploitation of Relationships in Financial Distress: The Case of Trade Credit," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 153-178, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ono, Masanori, 2009. "Trading companies as financial intermediaries in Japan," MPRA Paper 17331, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. El Ghoul, Sadok & Zheng, Xiaolan, 2016. "Trade credit provision and national culture," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 475-501.
    2. Mariarosaria Agostino & Francesco Trivieri, 2014. "Does trade credit play a signalling role? Some evidence from SMEs microdata," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 131-151, January.
    3. Rose Cunningham, 2004. "Trade Credit and Credit Rationing in Canadian Firms," Staff Working Papers 04-49, Bank of Canada.
    4. Bougheas, Spiros & Mateut, Simona & Mizen, Paul, 2009. "Corporate trade credit and inventories: New evidence of a trade-off from accounts payable and receivable," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 300-307, February.
    5. Uchida, Hirofumi & Udell, Gregory F. & Watanabe, Wako, 2013. "Are trade creditors relationship lenders?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25, pages 24-38.
    6. Cristina Martínez-Sola & Pedro J. García-Teruel & Pedro Martínez-Solano, 2013. "Trade credit policy and firm value," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 53(3), pages 791-808, September.
    7. Van Horen, Neeltje, 2004. "Trade Credit as a Competitiveness Tool;Evidence from Developing Countries," MPRA Paper 2792, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Mar 2005.
    8. Choi, Woon Gyu & Kim, Yungsan, 2005. "Trade Credit and the Effect of Macro-Financial Shocks: Evidence from U.S. Panel Data," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(4), pages 897-925, December.
    9. Mateut, Simona & Mizen, Paul & Ziane, Ydriss, 2015. "Inventory composition and trade credit," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 434-446.
    10. Jiri Chod, 2017. "Inventory, Risk Shifting, and Trade Credit," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(10), pages 3207-3225, October.
    11. Pedro J. García†Teruel & Pedro Martínez†Solano, 2010. "A Dynamic Approach to Accounts Receivable: a Study of Spanish SMEs," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 16(3), pages 400-421, June.
    12. Rodríguez Rodríguez, O. Mª, 2005. "El crédito comercial en las pymes canarias desde una perspectiva multivariante," Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Estudios de Economia Aplicada, vol. 23, pages 773-816, Diciembre.
    13. Mike Burkart & Tore Ellingsen, 2004. "In-Kind Finance: A Theory of Trade Credit," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 569-590, June.
    14. Cristina Martínez Sola & Pedro J. García-Teruel & Pedro Martínez Solano, 2012. "Trade credit policy and firm value," Working Papers. Serie EC 2012-01, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    15. Simona Mateut & Paul Mizen & Ydriss Ziane, 2011. "No Going Back: The Interactions Between Processed Inventories and Trade Credit," Discussion Papers 11/04, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
    16. Abdulla, Yomna & Dang, Viet Anh & Khurshed, Arif, 2020. "Suppliers' listing status and trade credit provision," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    17. Tsuruta, Daisuke & Uchida, Hirofumi, 2019. "The real driver of trade credit," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 57(C).
    18. Burkart, Mike & Ellingsen, Tore, 2002. "In-Kind Finance," CEPR Discussion Papers 3536, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    19. Chod, Jiri & Lyandres, Evgeny & Yang, S. Alex, 2019. "Trade credit and supplier competition," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 131(2), pages 484-505.
    20. Abdulla, Yomna & Dang, Viet Anh & Khurshed, Arif, 2017. "Stock market listing and the use of trade credit: Evidence from public and private firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 391-410.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Business performance and ownership; Financial statements and performance;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:stc:stcp5e:2005036e. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/stagvca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Mark Brown (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/stagvca.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.