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Switching Models with Self-Selection: Self-Employment in Hungary


  • Ira N. Gang

    () (Rutgers University)

  • Catherine Y. Co

    () (University of Central Florida)

  • Myeong-Su Yun

    () (University of Western Ontario)


We estimate the determinants of earnings for both the self-employed and wage/salary sectors in an economy undergoing transition from socialism to greater market orientation. We adopt a (full information) MLE methodology in addition to Heckman's two-step method, while taking both participation and self-employment decisions into account. We use the Hungarian Household Panel Survey for 1994. We find that the return to characteristics are not significantly different between self-employed and wage/salary sectors. However, when we also account for the dispersion of earnings, the structure of the earnings between the self- and wage/salary employed are different

Suggested Citation

  • Ira N. Gang & Catherine Y. Co & Myeong-Su Yun, 1999. "Switching Models with Self-Selection: Self-Employment in Hungary," Departmental Working Papers 199912, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:rut:rutres:199912

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    4. Sumner, Daniel A, 1981. "Wage Functions and Occupational Selection in a Rural Less Developed Country Setting," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(4), pages 513-519, November.
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    7. Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-748, August.
    8. Kennedy, Peter E, 1981. "Estimation with Correctly Interpreted Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations [The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations]," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 801-801, September.
    9. Andrew M. Yuengert, 1995. "Testing Hypotheses of Immigrant Self-Employment," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(1), pages 194-204.
    10. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-670, May.
    11. Maddala, G.S., 1986. "Disequilibrium, self-selection, and switching models," Handbook of Econometrics,in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 28, pages 1633-1688 Elsevier.
    12. Gill, Andrew M, 1988. "Choice of Employment Status and the Wages of Employees and the Self-employed: Some Further Evidence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 3(3), pages 229-234, July-Sept.
    13. Blau, David M., 1986. "Self-employment, earnings, and mobility in Peninsular Malaysia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 14(7), pages 839-852, July.
    14. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-535, June.
    15. Koop, Gary & Poirier, Dale J., 1997. "Learning about the across-regime correlation in switching regression models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 217-227, June.
    16. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    17. Fishe, Raymond P. H. & Trost, R. P. & Lurie, Philip M., 1981. "Labor force earnings and college choice of young women: An examination of selectivity bias and comparative advantage," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 169-191, April.
    18. Catherine Y. Co & Ira N. Gang & Myeong-Su Yun, 2000. "Returns to returning," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(1), pages 57-79.
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    Cited by:

    1. Colella, Fabrizio, 2014. "Women's Part-Time - Full-Time Wage Differentials in Europe: an Endogenous Switching Model," MPRA Paper 55287, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Axel Heitmueller, 2006. "Public-private sector pay differentials in a devolved Scotland," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 9, pages 295-323, November.
    3. Heitmueller, Axel, 2004. "Public-Private Sector Wage Differentials in Scotland: An Endogenous Switching Model," IZA Discussion Papers 992, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item


    decomposition; self-employment; self-selection; switching; transition;

    JEL classification:

    • C34 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • P23 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Factor and Product Markets; Industry Studies; Population


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