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Who Profits From Trade Facilitation Initiatives?


  • Bernard Hoekman
  • Ben Shepherd


Extensive research has demonstrated the existence of large potential welfare gains from trade facilitation—measures to reduce the overall costs of the international movement of goods. From an equity perspective an important question is how those benefits are distributed across and within nations. After discussing the possible impacts of trade facilitation, we use firm-level data for a wide variety of developing countries to investigate whether it is mostly large firms that benefit from trade facilitation. We find that firms of all sizes export more in response to improved trade facilitation. Our results suggest that trade facilitation can be beneficial in a range of countries, including those that are primarily involved in value chains as suppliers.

Suggested Citation

  • Bernard Hoekman & Ben Shepherd, 2013. "Who Profits From Trade Facilitation Initiatives?," RSCAS Working Papers 2013/49, European University Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:rsc:rsceui:2013/49

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Hoekman, Bernard, 2014. "The Bali Trade Facilitation Agreement and Rulemaking in the WTO: Milestone, Mistake or Mirage?," CEPR Discussion Papers 10212, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Volpe Martincus, Christian & Carballo, Jerónimo & Graziano, Alejandro, 2015. "Customs," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 119-137.
    3. Volpe Martincus, Christian & Carballo, Jerónimo & Graziano, Alejandro, 2015. "Customs," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 119-137.
    4. Lord, Montague & Artuso, Fabio & Record, Richard & Clarke, Julian, 2014. "Trading Costs in East Asia’s Global Value Chains," MPRA Paper 66437, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Trade facilitation; trade costs; WTO; firm-level data; developing countries; global value chains; supply chains.;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • O24 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Trade Policy; Factor Movement; Foreign Exchange Policy

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