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The Time Dimension And Value Of Flexibility In Resource Allocation: The Case Of The Maritime Industry

Listed author(s):
  • Axarloglou, Kostas

    (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of International Economic Relations and Development)

  • Visvikis, Ilias

    (ALBA Graduate Business School)

  • Zarkos, Stefanos

    (ALBA Graduate Business School)

Registered author(s):

    The paper analyses empirically the time-varying properties of the spread between voyage and time-charter rates and presents evidence that these properties are directly related to the business cycle (market demand) of the maritime industry, to the expectations for the future market demand and to market volatility. Using a real options methodology, we demonstrate that the time-varying properties of the spread is the outcome of the strategic decision to time-commit company resources in the industry. It is shown that, during a market upturn (downturn) managers choose to commit company resources for a short period (long period), and thus, maintain flexibility (commitment) in better exploiting the upcoming business opportunities (protecting company resources from lack of business opportunities). Overall, the fluctuations of the time-varying spread, between voyage and time-charter rates, offer managerial insights in resource allocation that can better shape up chartering, budgeting and financial management decisions on the time commitment of resources in the maritime industry.

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    Paper provided by Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics in its series DUTH Research Papers in Economics with number 2-2012.

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    Length: 28 pages
    Date of creation: 27 Jan 2012
    Handle: RePEc:ris:duthrp:2012_002
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    Department of Economics, University Campus, Komotini, 69100, Greece

    Phone: (25310) 39.503
    Fax: (25310) 39.502
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    1. Kostas Axarloglou & Stefanos Zarkos, 2010. "Market demand and the duration of business projects: the housing industry," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(7), pages 477-487.
    2. V. Krishnan & Shantanu Bhattacharya, 2002. "Technology Selection and Commitment in New Product Development: The Role of Uncertainty and Design Flexibility," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(3), pages 313-327, March.
    3. Manolis G. Kavussanos & Ilias D. Visvikis, 2006. "Shipping freight derivatives: a survey of recent evidence," Maritime Policy & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(3), pages 233-255, July.
    4. Tun-Hsiang (Edward) Yu & David A. Bessler & Stephen W. Fuller, 2007. "Price Dynamics in U.S. Grain and Freight Markets," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 55(3), pages 381-397, 09.
    5. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    6. Jeffrey A. Miron, 1996. "The Economics of Seasonal Cycles," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262133237, January.
    7. Haigh, Michael S. & Bryant, Henry L., 2001. "The effect of barge and ocean freight price volatility in international grain markets," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 25(1), pages 41-58, June.
    8. Haigh, Michael S. & Bryant, Henry L., 2001. "The effect of barge and ocean freight price volatility in international grain markets," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 25(1), June.
    9. Helen B. Bendall & Alan F. Stent, 2007. "Maritime investment strategies with a portfolio of real options," Maritime Policy & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(5), pages 441-452, October.
    10. Manolis G. Kavussanos & Andrianos E. Tsekrekos, 2011. "The Option to Change the Flag of a Vessel," Chapters,in: International Handbook of Maritime Economics, chapter 3 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Kavussanos, Manolis G. & Alizadeh-M, Amir H., 2001. "Seasonality patterns in dry bulk shipping spot and time charter freight rates," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 443-467, December.
    12. Manolis G. Kavussanos & Amir H. Alizadeh-M, 2002. "The Expectations Hypothesis of the Term Structure and Risk Premiums in Dry Bulk Shipping Freight Markets," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 36(2), pages 267-304, May.
    13. Helen B Bendall & Alan F Stent, 2005. "Ship Investment under Uncertainty: Valuing a Real Option on the Maximum of Several Strategies," Maritime Economics & Logistics, Palgrave Macmillan;International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME), vol. 7(1), pages 19-35, March.
    14. Sødal, Sigbjørn & Koekebakker, Steen & Aadland, Roar, 2008. "Market switching in shipping -- A real option model applied to the valuation of combination carriers," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 183-203, August.
    15. Panos Kouvelis & Kostas Axarloglou & Vikas Sinha, 2001. "Exchange Rates and the Choice of Ownership Structure of Production Facilities," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(8), pages 1063-1080, August.
    16. Axarloglou, Kostas & Kouvelis, Panos, 2007. "Hysteresis in adjusting the ownership structure of foreign subsidiaries," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 494-506, August.
    17. Kavussanos, Manolis G. & Visvikis, Ilias D. & Batchelor, Roy A., 2004. "Over-the-counter forward contracts and spot price volatility in shipping," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 273-296, July.
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