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Shipping freight derivatives: a survey of recent evidence


  • Manolis G. Kavussanos
  • Ilias D. Visvikis


In an industry that is characterized by highly volatile prices, seasonality, strong business cycles, cyclicality and capital intensiveness, risk management is extremely important. Ship-owners and charterers face enormous risks, which emanate from fluctuations in freight rates, bunker prices, interest rates, foreign exchange rates and vessel values. These risks substantially affect the interplay between revenue and cost. Modern risk management techniques, involve the use of financial derivatives products, some of which have been developed exclusively for protecting (hedging) against the adverse price fluctuations of the aforementioned sources of risk in shipping. By using derivatives products, ship-owners and charterers can secure (stabilize) the level of their future income or costs and thus reduce uncertainty and unforeseen volatility of their cash-flow. To explore the importance of hedging freight rate risk in shipping operations, a survey of recent empirical evidence that has appeared in economic studies has been conducted. Developments over the past 20 years have been fast, with certain amount of research carried, which has helped to understand better the special features of these derivatives markets. They are all summarized in the current study, which can provide the stepping stone for further work in the area of shipping derivatives and risk management in shipping.

Suggested Citation

  • Manolis G. Kavussanos & Ilias D. Visvikis, 2006. "Shipping freight derivatives: a survey of recent evidence," Maritime Policy & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(3), pages 233-255, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:marpmg:v:33:y:2006:i:3:p:233-255
    DOI: 10.1080/03088830600783152

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    3. Eric Tham, 2008. "Leading indicators for Arabian Gulf oil tanker rates," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 32(2), pages 139-149, June.
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    5. Goulas, Lambros & Skiadopoulos, George, 2012. "Are freight futures markets efficient? Evidence from IMAREX," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 644-659.
    6. Alizadeh, Amir H. & Huang, Chih-Yueh & van Dellen, Stefan, 2015. "A regime switching approach for hedging tanker shipping freight rates," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 44-59.
    7. Mitroussi, K. & Abouarghoub, W. & Haider, J.J. & Pettit, S.J. & Tigka, N., 2016. "Performance drivers of shipping loans: An empirical investigation," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 171(P3), pages 438-452.
    8. Mary R. Brooks, 2011. "Competition and Regulation in Maritime Transport," Chapters,in: A Handbook of Transport Economics, chapter 37 Edward Elgar Publishing.
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    10. Jędrzej Białkowski & Jan Koeman, 2017. "Does the Design of Spot Markets Matter for the Success of Futures Markets? Evidence from Dairy Futures," Working Papers in Economics 17/18, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics and Finance.
    11. Murthy Mudrageda & Frederic H. Murphy, 2008. "OR PRACTICE---An Economic Equilibrium Model of the Market for Marine Transportation Services in Petroleum Products," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 56(2), pages 278-285, April.
    12. Ghiorghe Batrinca & Gianina Cojanu, 2013. "The Dynamics of the Dry Bulk Sub-Markets," Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics and Information Technology,, vol. 3(6), pages 1-2, December.
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    14. Giovanni Pantuso & Kjetil Fagerholt & Stein W. Wallace, 2016. "Uncertainty in Fleet Renewal: A Case from Maritime Transportation," Transportation Science, INFORMS, vol. 50(2), pages 390-407, May.
    15. Amir Alizadeh & Konstantina Kappou & Dimitris Tsouknidis & Ilias Visvikis, 2014. "Liquidity Risk Premia in the International Shipping Derivatives Market," ICMA Centre Discussion Papers in Finance icma-dp2014-15, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    16. repec:pal:marecl:v:19:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1057_s41278-016-0053-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. André de Palma & Robin Lindsey & Emile Quinet & Roger Vickerman (ed.), 2011. "A Handbook of Transport Economics," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 12679.
    18. Axarloglou, Kostas & Visvikis, Ilias & Zarkos, Stefanos, 2013. "The time dimension and value of flexibility in resource allocation: The case of the maritime industry," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 35-48.
    19. Alizadeh, Amir H. & Kappou, Konstantina & Tsouknidis, Dimitris & Visvikis, Ilias, 2015. "Liquidity effects and FFA returns in the international shipping derivatives market," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 58-75.
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    22. Alexandridis, G. & Sahoo, S. & Visvikis, I., 2017. "Economic information transmissions and liquidity between shipping markets: New evidence from freight derivatives," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 82-104.
    23. Yao-Jen Hsiao & Heng-Chih Chou & Chun-Chou Wu, 2014. "Return lead-lag and volatility transmission in shipping freight markets," Maritime Policy & Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(7), pages 697-714, December.

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