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Costs and Benefits of Urbanization: The Indian Case

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  • Sridhar, Kala Seetharam

    (Asian Development Bank Institute)

Abstract

Urbanization has both benefits and costs. In a market economy, the trade-off between benefits and costs determines the level, speed, and pace of urbanization. This paper summarizes research findings on how urbanization enhances productivity and economic growth in both rural and urban sectors, taking the case of India. We study the relationship between urbanization and growth in the Indian context by examining microeconomic evidence on how enterprises and consumers share production and infrastructure costs, match with specialized workers and employers more efficiently in the labor market, and learn from other producers and workers. Based on extensive data analyses of urbanization, we find no impact of urban–rural inequalities on urbanization, but a significant impact on the population of the largest city in the state. When accounting for the two-way relationship between urbanization and the rural–urban income ratio, we find that urbanization increases urban–rural inequalities initially, but, at higher levels, reduces them. This paper also studies how the urban areas are affected by migration from rural areas and how rural areas benefit from urban development. Furthermore, policy implications regarding telecommuting and investments in urban infrastructure are summarized. Lessons from India and the People’s Republic of China for each other’s urbanization are also discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Sridhar, Kala Seetharam, 2016. "Costs and Benefits of Urbanization: The Indian Case," ADBI Working Papers 607, Asian Development Bank Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:adbiwp:0607
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    Cited by:

    1. Tripathi, Sabyasachi & Kaur, Shupinder, 2017. "Do negative externalities have any impact on population agglomerations? Evidence from Urban India," MPRA Paper 76897, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    urbanization; rural-urban migration; rural-urban income gap; telecommuting; infrastructure investments;

    JEL classification:

    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • O57 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Comparative Studies of Countries
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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