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Energy and Carbon Dynamics at Advanced Stages of Development: An Analysis of the U.S. States, 1960–1999

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  • Aldy, Joseph E.

    () (Resources for the Future)

Abstract

This paper explores the relationships among economic development, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by focusing on a set of advanced economies, the U.S. states. Energy consumption and emissions grew 50–60 percent on average over the 1960–1999 period. The states’ per capita energy consumption and emissions have grown on average 2 percent annually as income and population growth have outpaced improvements in energy intensity of output and carbon intensity of energy. The energy consumption income elasticity is positive but decreasing in income, although energy production takes an inverted-U shape, reflecting the electricity imports among high income states. The standard CO2 measure, corresponding to energy production, is characterized by an inverted-U environmental Kuznets curve. Adjusting emissions for interstate electricity trade yields an emissions–income relationship that peaks and plateaus. The carbon intensity of energy declines in income for total energy consumption and the industrial, residential, and commercial sectors.

Suggested Citation

  • Aldy, Joseph E., 2006. "Energy and Carbon Dynamics at Advanced Stages of Development: An Analysis of the U.S. States, 1960–1999," Discussion Papers dp-06-13, Resources For the Future.
  • Handle: RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-06-13
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Rothman, Dale S., 1998. "Environmental Kuznets curves--real progress or passing the buck?: A case for consumption-based approaches," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 177-194, May.
    2. Randall Lutter, 2000. "Developing Countries' Greenhouse Emmissions: Uncertainty and Implications for Participation in the Kyoto Protocol," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 93-120.
    3. Kenneth B. Medlock III & Ronald Soligo, 2001. "Economic Development and End-Use Energy Demand," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 77-105.
    4. Rossana Galli, 1998. "The Relationship Between Energy Intensity and Income Levels: Forecasting Long Term Energy Demand in Asian Emerging Countries," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 85-105.
    5. Ruth A. Judson & Richard Schmalensee & Thomas M. Stoker, 1999. "Economic Development and the Structure of the Demand for Commercial Energy," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 29-57.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mark C. Snead & Amy A. Jones, 2010. "Are U.S. states equally prepared for a carbon-constrained world?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 67-96.
    2. Wagner, Gernot, 2010. "Energy content of world trade," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 7710-7721, December.
    3. Davidsdottir, B. & Fisher, M., 2011. "The odd couple: The relationship between state economic performance and carbon emissions economic intensity," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 4551-4562, August.
    4. Du, Limin & Wei, Chu & Cai, Shenghua, 2012. "Economic development and carbon dioxide emissions in China: Provincial panel data analysis," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 371-384.
    5. James G. Baldwin & Ian Sue Wing, 2013. "The Spatiotemporal Evolution Of U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Stylized Facts And Implications For Climate Policy," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(4), pages 672-689, October.
    6. Clarke-Sather, Afton & Qu, Jiansheng & Wang, Qin & Zeng, Jingjing & Li, Yan, 2011. "Carbon inequality at the sub-national scale: A case study of provincial-level inequality in CO2 emissions in China 1997-2007," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 5420-5428, September.
    7. Wang, Shaojian & Fang, Chuanglin & Guan, Xingliang & Pang, Bo & Ma, Haitao, 2014. "Urbanisation, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions in China: A panel data analysis of China’s provinces," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 136(C), pages 738-749.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Engel curve; environmental Kuznets curve; cubic spline; Kaya identity;

    JEL classification:

    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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