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Are Terms of Trade Rises Inflationary?

Author

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  • David Gruen

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

  • Jacqueline Dwyer

    (Reserve Bank of Australia)

Abstract

This paper explores the relationship between the terms of trade and inflation. It shows, both analytically and empirically, that the exchange rate response to a change in the terms of trade is crucial to the inflation outcome. It suggests the existence of a ‘threshold’ exchange rate response. Our best estimate is that (other things being equal) a rise in the terms of trade is inflationary if the associated rise in the real exchange rate is less than about 1/3-1/2 of the rise in the terms of trade. However, if appreciation of the real exchange rate is larger than this, the consequent fall in the domestic price of importables is large enough that the terms of trade rise reduces inflation, at least in the short run.

Suggested Citation

  • David Gruen & Jacqueline Dwyer, 1995. "Are Terms of Trade Rises Inflationary?," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp9508, Reserve Bank of Australia.
  • Handle: RePEc:rba:rbardp:rdp9508
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. L.P. O'Mara & N.A. Wallace & Helen Meshios, 1987. "The Current Account, Monetary Policy, Market Sentiment And The Real Exchange Rate: Some Implications For The Farm Sector," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 31(3), pages 219-241, December.
    2. Jacqueline Dwyer & Christopher Kent & Andrew Pease, 1993. "Exchange Rate Pass-through: The Different Responses of Importers and Exporters," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp9304, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    3. Gruen, David W R & Wilkinson, Jenny, 1994. "Australia's Real Exchange Rate--Is It Explained by the Terms of Trade or by Real Interest Differentials?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 70(209), pages 204-219, June.
    4. Adrian Blundell-Wignall & Robert G. Gregory, 1990. "Exchange Rate Policy in Advanced Commodity-Exporting Countries: The Case of Australia and New Zealand," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 83, OECD Publishing.
    5. Adrian Blundell-Wignall, 1993. "Introduction to The Exchange Rate, International Trade and the Balance of Payments," RBA Annual Conference Volume,in: Adrian Blundell-Wignall (ed.), The Exchange Rate, International Trade and the Balance of Payments Reserve Bank of Australia.
    6. Dwyer, Jacqueline, 1992. "The Tradeable Non-tradeable Dichotomy: A Practical Approach," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(59), pages 443-459, December.
    7. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-1176, December.
    8. David Gruen & Geoffrey Shuetrim, 1994. "Internationalisation and the Macroeconomy," RBA Annual Conference Volume,in: Philip Lowe & Jacqueline Dwyer (ed.), International Intergration of the Australian Economy Reserve Bank of Australia.
    9. Edwards, Sebastian & van Wijnbergen, Sweder, 1987. "Tariffs, The Real Exchange Rate and the Terms of Trade: On Two Popular Propositions in International Economics," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(3), pages 458-464, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kiran Ijaz & Muhammad Zakaria & Bashir A. Fida, 2014. "Terms-of-Trade Volatility and Inflation in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 19(1), pages 111-132, Jan-June.
    2. Valadkhani, Abbas & Layton, Allan P. & Karunaratne, Neil D., 2005. "Export Price Volatility in Australia: An Application of ARCH and GARCH Models," Economics Working Papers wp05-11, School of Economics, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    3. Jacqueline Dwyer & Kenneth Leong, 2001. "Changes in the determinants of inflation in Australia," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Empirical studies of structural changes and inflation, volume 3, pages 1-28 Bank for International Settlements.
    4. Syed Kanwar Abbas & Prasad Sankar Bhattacharya & Debdulal Mallick & Pasquale Sgro, 2016. "The New Keynesian Phillips Curve in a Small Open Economy: Empirical Evidence from Australia," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 92(298), pages 409-434, September.
    5. Mardi Dungey & Renee Fry-McKibbin & Verity Linehan, 2014. "Chinese resource demand and the natural resource supplier," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(2), pages 167-178, January.
    6. Gruen, David & Pagan, Adrian & Thompson, Christopher, 1999. "The Phillips curve in Australia," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 223-258, October.
    7. Ameyaw, Samuel Donyina, 2004. "A Small Macroeconometric Model of Trade and Inflation in Ghana," Economic Research Papers 269590, University of Warwick - Department of Economics.
    8. Malcolm Edey, 1997. "The Debate on Alternatives for Monetary Policy in Australia," RBA Annual Conference Volume,in: Philip Lowe (ed.), Monetary Policy and Inflation Targeting Reserve Bank of Australia.
    9. Gordon D. Menzies, 2005. "Who'S Afraid Of The Marshall-Lerner Condition?," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 24(4), pages 309-315, December.
    10. Donyina-Ameyaw, Samuel, 2004. "A Small Macroeconmetric Model Of Trade And Inflation In Ghana," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 696, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    11. Christian Broda, 2002. "Terms of trade and exchange rate regimes in developing countries," Staff Reports 148, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    12. Andrea Brischetto & Graham Voss, 1999. "A Structural Vector Autoregression Model of Monetary Policy in Australia," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp1999-11, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    13. Christopher Kent & Philip Lowe, 1997. "Asset-price Bubbles and Monetary Policy," RBA Research Discussion Papers rdp9709, Reserve Bank of Australia.
    14. Dungey, Mardi & Pagan, Adrian, 2000. "A Structural VAR Model of the Australian Economy," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 76(235), pages 321-342, December.

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