IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Cohesion within the euro area and the U. S.: a wavelet-based view


  • António Rua
  • Artur Silva Lopes


The assessment of synchronization of macroeconomic fluctuations across countries or regions has been crucial, for example, for the debate on economic integration. In this paper, we propose a multivariate measure of synchronization to assess cohesion across countries or regions by resorting to wavelet analysis. This wavelet-based measure of cohesion allows one to assess how synchronization has evolved over time and across frequencies simultaneously. In particular, we investigate the cohesion among euro area countries and the cohesion within the U.S. both at the regional and state levels over the last decades. In addition, an analysis at the sectoral level is also conducted. The results obtained unveil a noteworthy heterogeneity and highlight the usefulness of a wavelet-based measure of cohesion.

Suggested Citation

  • António Rua & Artur Silva Lopes, 2012. "Cohesion within the euro area and the U. S.: a wavelet-based view," Working Papers w201204, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:ptu:wpaper:w201204

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pakko, Michael R., 2004. "A spectral analysis of the cross-country consumption correlation puzzle," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 84(3), pages 341-347, September.
    2. Yogo, Motohiro, 2008. "Measuring business cycles: A wavelet analysis of economic time series," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 100(2), pages 208-212, August.
    3. Rua, Antonio & Nunes, Luis C., 2005. "Coincident and leading indicators for the euro area: A frequency band approach," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 503-523.
    4. Camacho, Maximo & Perez-Quiros, Gabriel & Saiz, Lorena, 2006. "Are European business cycles close enough to be just one?," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 30(9-10), pages 1687-1706.
    5. Kalemli-Ozcan, Sebnem & Sorensen, Bent E. & Yosha, Oved, 2001. "Economic integration, industrial specialization, and the asymmetry of macroeconomic fluctuations," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 107-137, October.
    6. Rua, António & Nunes, Luís C., 2009. "International comovement of stock market returns: A wavelet analysis," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 632-639, September.
    7. Patrick M. Crowley & David G. Mayes, 2009. "How fused is the euro area core?: An evaluation of growth cycle co-movement and synchronization using wavelet analysis," OECD Journal: Journal of Business Cycle Measurement and Analysis, OECD Publishing, Centre for International Research on Economic Tendency Surveys, vol. 2008(1), pages 63-95.
    8. Fabien Tripier, 2002. "The Dynamic Correlation Between Growth and Unemployment," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 5(4), pages 1-9.
    9. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:5:y:2002:i:4:p:1-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Patrick M. Crowley, 2007. "A Guide To Wavelets For Economists ," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(2), pages 207-267, April.
    11. Carlino, Gerald A. & DeFina, Robert H., 2004. "How strong is co-movement in employment over the business cycle? Evidence from state/sector data," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 298-315, March.
    12. Eickmeier, Sandra & Breitung, Jorg, 2006. "How synchronized are new EU member states with the euro area? Evidence from a structural factor model," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 538-563, September.
    13. Christophe Croux & Mario Forni & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2001. "A Measure Of Comovement For Economic Variables: Theory And Empirics," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(2), pages 232-241, May.
    14. Breitung, Jorg & Candelon, Bertrand, 2006. "Testing for short- and long-run causality: A frequency-domain approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 132(2), pages 363-378, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Lubos Hanus & Lukas Vacha, 2015. "Business cycle synchronization of the Visegrad Four and the European Union," Working Papers IES 2015/19, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, revised Jul 2015.
    2. Lubos Hanus & Lukas Vacha, 2015. "Business cycle synchronization within the European Union: A wavelet cohesion approach," Papers 1506.03106,, revised Feb 2016.
    3. António Rua, 2012. "Wavelets in economics," Economic Bulletin and Financial Stability Report Articles, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    4. repec:bpj:bejmac:v:17:y:2017:i:1:p:15:n:4 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Luís Aguiar-Conraria & Pedro Brinca & Haukur Viðar Guðjónsson & Maria Joana Soares, 2015. "Optimum Currency Area and Business Cycle Synchronization Across U.S. States," NIPE Working Papers 1/2015, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C40 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - General
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ptu:wpaper:w201204. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (DEE-NTDD). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.