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Time-Varying Linkages between Tourism Receipts and Economic Growth in South Africa


  • Mehmet Balcilar

    () (Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus,via Mersin 10, Turkey)

  • Renee van Eyden

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)

  • Roula Inglesi-Lotz

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)

  • Rangan Gupta

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)


The causal link between tourism receipts and GDP has recently become a major focus in the tourism economics literature. Results obtained in recent studies about the causal link appear to be sensitive with respect to the countries analysed, sample period and methodology employed. Considering the sensitivity of the causal link, we use the rolling window and time-varying coefficient estimation methods to analyse the parameter stability and Granger causality based on a vector error correction model (VECM). When applied to South Africa for the 1960-2011 periods, the findings are as follows: results from the full sample VECM indicate that there is no Granger-causality between the tourism receipts and GDP, while the findings from the time-varying coefficients model based on the state-space representation and rolling window estimation technique show that GDP has no predictive power for tourism receipts; however, tourism receipts have positive-predictive content for GDP for the entire period, with the exception of the period between 1985 and 1990.

Suggested Citation

  • Mehmet Balcilar & Renee van Eyden & Roula Inglesi-Lotz & Rangan Gupta, 2013. "Time-Varying Linkages between Tourism Receipts and Economic Growth in South Africa," Working Papers 201363, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pre:wpaper:201363

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    Cited by:

    1. Hassani, Hossein & Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal & Antonakakis, Nikolaos & Filis, George & Gupta, Rangan, 2017. "Forecasting accuracy evaluation of tourist arrivals," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 112-127.
    2. Andrew Phiri, 2016. "Tourism and Economic Growth in South Africa: Evidence from Linear and Nonlinear Cointegration Frameworks," Managing Global Transitions, University of Primorska, Faculty of Management Koper, vol. 14(1 (Spring), pages 31-53.
    3. Buthaina M. A. Muhtaseb & Hussam-Eldin Daoud, 2017. "Tourism and Economic Growth in Jordan: Evidence from Linear and Nonlinear Frameworks," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 7(1), pages 214-223.
    4. Tsangyao Chang & Hsiao-Ping Chu & Frederick W. Deale & Rangan Gupta & Stephen M. Miller, 2017. "The relationship between population growth and standard-of-living growth over 1870–2013: evidence from a bootstrapped panel Granger causality test," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 44(1), pages 175-201, February.
    5. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Ferrer, Román & Hussain Shahzad, Syed Jawad & Haouas, Ilham, 2017. "Is the tourism-economic growth nexus time-varying? Bootstrap rolling-window causality analysis for the top ten tourist destinations," MPRA Paper 82713, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 04 Nov 2017.
    6. Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Ferrer, Román & Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh, 2017. "Tourism-led growth hypothesis in the top ten tourist destinations: New evidence using the quantile-on-quantile approach," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 223-232.
    7. repec:kap:empiri:v:45:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s10663-016-9345-3 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Tourism receipts; economic growth; time-varying causality; time-varying parameter model;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General

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