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Environmental efficiency of energy, materials, and emissions


  • Yagi, Michiyuki
  • Hidemichi, Fujii
  • Hoang, Vincent
  • Managi, Shunsuke


This study estimates the environmental efficiency of international listed firms in 10 worldwide sectors from 2007-2013 by applying an order-m method, a non-parametric approach based on free disposal hull with subsampling bootstrapping. Using a conventional output of gross profit and two conventional inputs of labor and capital, this study examines the order-m environmental efficiency accounting for the presence of each of 10 undesirable inputs/outputs and measures the shadow prices of each undesirable input and output. The results show that there is greater potential for the reduction of undesirable inputs rather than bad outputs. On average, total energy, electricity, or water usage has the potential to be reduced by 50%. The median shadow prices of undesirable inputs, however, are much higher than the surveyed representative market prices. Approximately 10% of the firms in the sample appear to be potential sellers or production reducers in terms of undesirable inputs/outputs, which implies that the price of each item at the current level has little impact on most of the firms. Moreover, this study shows that the environmental, social, and governance activities of a firm do not considerably affect environmental efficiency.

Suggested Citation

  • Yagi, Michiyuki & Hidemichi, Fujii & Hoang, Vincent & Managi, Shunsuke, 2015. "Environmental efficiency of energy, materials, and emissions," MPRA Paper 65358, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:65358

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Subhash C. Ray & Kankana Mukherjee, 2007. "Efficiency in Managing the Environment and the Opportunity Cost of Pollution Abatement," Working papers 2007-09, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    2. Richard Schmalensee & Robert N. Stavins, 2013. "The SO 2 Allowance Trading System: The Ironic History of a Grand Policy Experiment," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 27(1), pages 103-122, Winter.
    3. Fare, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna & Tyteca, Daniel, 1996. "An activity analysis model of the environmental performance of firms--application to fossil-fuel-fired electric utilities," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 161-175, August.
    4. Kuosmanen, Timo & Cherchye, Laurens & Sipilainen, Timo, 2006. "The law of one price in data envelopment analysis: Restricting weight flexibility across firms," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 170(3), pages 735-757, May.
    5. Robert G. Chambers, 2002. "Exact nonradial input, output, and productivity measurement," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 20(4), pages 751-765.
    6. repec:pal:jorsoc:v:60:y:2009:i:12:d:10.1057_jors.2008.142 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Fare, Rolf & Grosskopf, Shawna & Noh, Dong-Woon & Weber, William, 2005. "Characteristics of a polluting technology: theory and practice," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 469-492, June.
    8. Laurens Cherchye & Timo Kuosmanen & Thierry Post, 2001. "FDH Directional Distance Functions with an Application to European Commercial Banks," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 15(3), pages 201-215, January.
    9. Cazals, Catherine & Florens, Jean-Pierre & Simar, Leopold, 2002. "Nonparametric frontier estimation: a robust approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 1-25, January.
    10. H Leleu, 2009. "Mixing DEA and FDH models together," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 60(12), pages 1730-1737, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hidemichi Fujii & Shunsuke Managi, 2016. "Trends in corporate environmental management studies and databases," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 18(2), pages 265-272, April.
    2. repec:kap:jproda:v:47:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11123-016-0480-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Peihao Lai & Minzhe Du & Bing Wang & Ziyue Chen, 2016. "Assessment and Decomposition of Total Factor Energy Efficiency: An Evidence Based on Energy Shadow Price in China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(5), pages 1-23, April.
    4. Shunsuke Managi & George Halkos, 2015. "Production analysis in environmental, resource, and infrastructure evaluation," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 4(1), pages 1-4, December.
    5. Hidemichi Fujii & A. George Assaf & Shunsuke Managi & Roman Matousek, 2016. "Did the financial crisis affect environmental efficiency? evidence from the Japanese manufacturing sector," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 18(2), pages 159-168, April.
    6. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:4:p:620-:d:95947 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Satoshi Honma, 2015. "Does international trade improve environmental efficiency? An application of a super slacks-based measure of efficiency," Journal of Economic Structures, Springer;Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS), vol. 4(1), pages 1-12, December.
    8. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:12:p:2080-:d:120466 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:gam:jeners:v:10:y:2017:i:11:p:1758-:d:117204 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Data envelopment analysis; Environmental efficiency; Shadow price; Free disposal hull; Linear programming;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • Q50 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - General

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