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Remittances and the real effective exchange rate


  • Hassan, Gazi
  • Holmes, Mark


We examine the long-run relationship between remittances and the real exchange rate for less developed countries using a panel cointegration approach. We employ an innovative method for the measurement of the multilateral real effective exchange rate and we focus on high remittance economies. We find a small inelastic, but significant, long-run relationship which confirms a “Dutch disease” type effect. Short-run confirmation is given by a panel error correction model. Potential asymmetries in this relationship are explored using quantile regression analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Hassan, Gazi & Holmes, Mark, 2012. "Remittances and the real effective exchange rate," MPRA Paper 40084, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:40084

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Joakim Westerlund, 2007. "Testing for Error Correction in Panel Data," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(6), pages 709-748, December.
    2. Giuliano, Paola & Ruiz-Arranz, Marta, 2009. "Remittances, financial development, and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 144-152, September.
    3. Moshe Buchinsky, 1998. "Recent Advances in Quantile Regression Models: A Practical Guideline for Empirical Research," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 88-126.
    4. Acosta, Pablo A. & Lartey, Emmanuel K.K. & Mandelman, Federico S., 2009. "Remittances and the Dutch disease," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 102-116, September.
    5. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    6. Michael T. Gapen & Ralph Chami & Peter J Montiel & Adolfo Barajas & Connel Fullenkamp, 2009. "Do Workers’ Remittances Promote Economic Growth?," IMF Working Papers 09/153, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Emmanuel K. K. Lartey & Federico S. Mandelman & Pablo A. Acosta, 2012. "Remittances, Exchange Rate Regimes and the Dutch Disease: A Panel Data Analysis," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 377-395, May.
    8. Gupta, Sanjeev & Pattillo, Catherine A. & Wagh, Smita, 2009. "Effect of Remittances on Poverty and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 104-115, January.
    9. Hnatkovska, Viktoria & Loayza, Norman, 2004. "Volatility and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3184, The World Bank.
    10. B. Bhaskara Rao & Gazi Mainul Hassan, 2012. "Are the Direct and Indirect Growth Effects of Remittances Significant?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(3), pages 351-372, March.
    11. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & Pozo, Susan, 2004. "Workers' Remittances and the Real Exchange Rate: A Paradox of Gifts," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1407-1417, August.
    12. Yves Bourdet & Hans Falck, 2006. "Emigrants' remittances and Dutch Disease in Cape Verde," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 267-284.
    13. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gazi M. Hassan & Mark J. Holmes, 2016. "Do Remittances Facilitate a Sustainable Current Account?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(11), pages 1834-1853, November.
    2. repec:rej:journl:v:20:y:2017:i:63:p:29-52 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Kimberly Beaton & Svetlana Cerovic & Misael Galdamez & Metodij Hadzi-Vaskov & Franz Loyola & Zsoka Koczan & Bogdan Lissovolik & Jan Kees Martijn & Yulia Ustyugova & Joyce Wong, 2017. "Migration and Remittances in Latin America and the Caribbean; Engines of Growth and Macroeconomic Stabilizers?," IMF Working Papers 17/144, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Andrew V. Stephenson & Amanda Wilsker, 2016. "Consumption Effects of Foreign Remittances in Jamaica," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 22(3), pages 309-320, August.
    5. Gazi Mainul Hassan & Mohammed S. Bhuyan, 2013. "Growth Effects of Remittances:Is there a U-Shaped Relationship?," Working Papers in Economics 13/16, University of Waikato.
    6. Ouyang, Alice & Paul, Saumik, 2015. "Skilled Emigration, Wages and Real Exchange Rate in a Globalized World," CEI Working Paper Series 2014-11, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    7. Gazi M. Hassan & Shafiqur Rahman, 2015. "Is the Democratisation Process Responsive to Remittance Flows? Evidence from Bangladesh," Working Papers in Economics 15/06, University of Waikato.
    8. Gazi M. Hassan & Mark J. Holmes, 2017. "How Do Workers' Remittances Respond to Lending Rates?," Working Papers in Economics 17/02, University of Waikato.
    9. Adolfo Barajas & Ralph Chami & Christian H Ebeke & Anne Oeking, 2016. "What’s Different about Monetary Policy Transmission in Remittance-Dependent Countries?," IMF Working Papers 16/44, International Monetary Fund.

    More about this item


    Remittances; Real Effective Exchange Rate; Panel cointegration; Panel error correction; Quantile regression;

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • F0 - International Economics - - General
    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • F24 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Remittances

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