Does the labor market structure explain differences in poverty in rural Punjab?
The main focus of this study is Rural Punjab and it contributes to regional poverty research in two ways; first, using a more recent household survey data, carried out in August 2007 by the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), it provides fresh poverty estimates for the rural areas of the Punjab. Second, the poverty differential across the agroclimatic zones of Punjab have been explained by urbanization, overseas migration and the labor market structure operating in these zones. This study shows four major factors that explain inequalities in poverty levels. First, the rural areas of two zones, barani and rice/wheat, are well integrated with urban settings. This integration has allowed their rural populations to work in the industrial sector of Central Punjab and the services sector in North Punjab primarily Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Second, the belt from Lahore to Attock in the Punjab has benefited the most from overseas migration. The flow of remittances has helped in reducing poverty levels. Third, the cotton/wheat and low intensity zone still largely depend for employment on the agricultural sector while this dependency is very low in the barani zone, which has good opportunity to seek job opportunities for its labor force in the armed services and government departments. Finally, demographic and social factors including education are less favorable in the cotton/wheat and low intensity zones which negatively impacts on a breakthrough in poverty reduction.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Haroon Jamal & Amir Jahan Khan & Imran Ashraf Toor & Naveed Amir, 2003. "Mapping the Spatial Deprivation of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 91-111.
- G. M. Arif & Faiz Bilquees, 2006.
"Chronic and Transitory Poverty in Pakistan: Evidence from a Longitudinal Household Survey,"
MIMAP Technical Paper Series
2006:19, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- G. M. Arif & Faiz Bilquees, 2007. "Chronic and Transitory Poverty in Pakistan: Evidence from a Longitudinal Household Survey," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(2), pages 111-127.
- G. M., Arif & Ahmad, Munir, 2001.
"Poverty across the agro- ecological zones in rural Pakistan,"
37681, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Arif, G. M. & Ahmad, M., 2001. "Poverty across the agro-ecological zones in rural Pakistan," Conference Papers h028875, International Water Management Institute.
- Sohail j. Malik, 1992. "Rural Poverty in Pakistan: Some Recent Evidence," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 975-995.
- G.M. Arif, 2006. "Poverty Targeting in Pakistan: The Role of Zakat and the Lady Health Worker Program," Chapters, in: Poverty Strategies in Asia, chapter 7 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Gutierrez, Catalina & Orecchia, Carlo & Paci, Pierella & Serneels, Pieter, 2007. "Does employment generation really matter for poverty reduction ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4432, The World Bank.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:37977. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.