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Poverty across the Agro-Ecological Zones in Rural Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Arif, Ghulam-Muhammad
  • Ahmad, Munir

Abstract

Thc major objective of this paper was to review the studies relating to poverty analysis in Pakistan. The results of these have shown that the poverty has increased during the 90s overall as well as in rural and urban areas, after experiencing downward trends during the 80s. Besides, the gap between rural and urban poverty has also widened. The recent estimates show that morc than one-third of our population lives in extreme poverty, and around 70 percent of these unfortunate people reside in rural areas. The results based on agro-ecological divisions of the country indicate that poverty is lowest in the barani arias of the Punjab because or better opportunities in terms of employment in other sectors, particularly, the services sector as well as overseas migration. The highest is observed in Balochistan may be due to nonavailability of irrigation water and low rainfall making dwellers more vulnerable to droughts seriously affecting the crops and the livestock which are the main sources of their livelihood. Poverty is widely spread in irrigated areas of the country particularly in Southern Punjab and Sindh where feudal system still prevails. Job opportunities outside agriculture are limited and migration within the country or overseas is not a common phenomenon in these areas of the country. On the one hand there is a need to carry out more research to understand better the phenomenon of poverty across the agro-ecological zones, and on the other, poverty alleviation programs should focus on those areas where the incidence of poverty is alarmingly high.

Suggested Citation

  • Arif, Ghulam-Muhammad & Ahmad, Munir, 2001. "Poverty across the Agro-Ecological Zones in Rural Pakistan," MPRA Paper 72937, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2001.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:72937
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/72937/1/MPRA_paper_72937.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. G. M. Arif & Hina Nazli & Rashida Haq, 2000. "Rural Non-agriculture Employment and Poverty in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 1089-1110.
    2. Sarfraz K. Qureshi & G. M. Arif, 2001. "Profile of Poverty in Pakistan, 1998-99," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 2001:05, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    3. Sohail j. Malik, 1992. "Rural Poverty in Pakistan: Some Recent Evidence," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 975-995.
    4. Aldi Hagenaars & Klaas de Vos, 1988. "The Definition and Measurement of Poverty," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(2), pages 211-221.
    5. Rashid Amjad & A.R. Kemal, 1997. "Macroeconomic Policies and their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 39-68.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Rashid Amjad & G. M. Arif & Usman Mustafa, 2008. "Does the Labor Market Structure Explain Differences in Poverty in Rural Punjab?," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 13(Special E), pages 139-162, September.
    2. repec:ilo:ilowps:367533 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Munir Ahmad, 2003. "Agricultural Productivity, Efficiency, and Rural Poverty in Irrigated Pakistan: A Stochastic Production FrontiermAnalysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(3), pages 219-248.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Poverty; ecological zones; Punjab; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General

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