IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

National economic and environmental development study: the case of Pakistan


  • Ahmed, Vaqar
  • Malik, Amin Aslam Khan
  • Ramay, Shakeel
  • Munawwar, Zuhair
  • Pervaiz, Amir


Pakistan is a developing country bracing for significant economic growth and development in the future. In this regards, the country is poised to shift towards an increased reliance upon its indigenous coal reserves to fuel its development in the 2010-2050 time frame. Although this will significantly raise its projected greenhouse gas emissions, the present study has identified numerous measures which can be taken to shift this future development pathway on to a lower carbon and more climate friendly trajectory. The country, however, requires this shift to be supported through the access and transfer of appropriate technologies and finance. The ensuing “additional” financial needs for mitigation for a cleaner development future range from between U$ 8 billion and U$ 17 billion. These have been identified in this report along with a potential of 18% and 40% reduction of emissions between below “Business As Usual” scenario which is possible with a shift towards cleaner technologies. These clean development investments, however, need to be made in the near future as otherwise the energy future of Pakistan will get locked into the lower cost - higher carbon options. This mitigation costing estimate will, however, need to be refined and focused further as Pakistan identifies not only the specific technologies that it needs for this low carbon shift (through carrying out the “Technology Needs Assessment”) but also the programmatic, sectoral as well as project specific NAMAs (Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions) in the near future. Pakistan is also highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and faces immense associated challenges in coping with its unavoidable effects and economic implications. This study has highlighted the need to treat adaptation to climate change as a primary development issue for Pakistan. The potential impacts and sectors demanding prioritized adaptation have been identified in this study and the, associated, costs of adaptation have been estimated utilizing three diverse modeling methodologies – using GDP projections, per-capita figures and “flood” disaster modeling. The resulting adaptation cost figures range from between U$ 6 billion to U$ 14 billion/year that Pakistan would have to spend at an average in the 2010-2050 time frame to cope with the effects of climate change while it will be also left to, unavoidably, bear significant “residual damage” costs induced due to climate change. The top-down adaptation costing analysis applied in this report is aimed at providing a reasonable first approximation that can be refined over time as relevant and reliable local data becomes available especially from research focusing on sector specific adaptation costing. Most significantly the report reinforces the fact that the issue of climate change is, thus, not only an environmental issue challenging the country but an issue which will directly impinge upon the country’s economic, financial and development future as it deals with its extreme vulnerability to climate change. The significant climate costs identified in this study inextricably shows that climate change is an issue which Pakistan can ill afford to ignore in the future. Finally the report has identified the major financing options available for climate change related activities in Pakistan as well as the significant unilateral climate resources, U$ 4.5 billion in 2007-2009 alone, that the country is already committing to climate change without getting any global recognition for its efforts. In future, global financing will need to augment and leverage such national financial commitments. Also, as climate finance becomes increasingly available at the global level, it would be essential to enact appropriate assimilative national capacity in Pakistan to direct this finance towards nationally identified priorities as well as channelize it transparently and efficiently through consolidated financial mechanisms like a National Climate Change Fund which has been proposed through this study.

Suggested Citation

  • Ahmed, Vaqar & Malik, Amin Aslam Khan & Ramay, Shakeel & Munawwar, Zuhair & Pervaiz, Amir, 2011. "National economic and environmental development study: the case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 30942, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30942

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nelson, Gerald C. & Rosegrant, Mark W. & Koo, Jawoo & Robertson, Richard & Sulser, Timothy & Zhu, Tingju & Ringler, Claudia & Msangi, Siwa & Palazzo, Amanda & Batka, Miroslav & Magalhaes, Marilia & Va, 2009. "Climate change: Impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation," Food policy reports 21, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Korai, Muhammad Safar & Mahar, Rasool Bux & Uqaili, Muhammad Aslam, 2017. "The feasibility of municipal solid waste for energy generation and its existing management practices in Pakistan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 338-353.

    More about this item


    climate change Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30942. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.