Revisiting the health-income nexus in Malaysia: ARDL cointegration and Rao's F-test for causality
This study re-visits the health-income nexus for Malaysia using alternative econometric techniques which addressed on the small sample problem. This study covers the annual sample period of 1970 to 2009. Based on the appealing small sample properties, we applied the bounds testing approach to cointegration and the system-wise Rao’s F-test with bootstrap simulation procedure in this study. The bounds test suggests that health care expenditure and real income are moving together in the long-run. In addition, the long-run income elasticity is also estimate using four long-run estimators, namely OLS, DOLS, FMOLS, and ARDL. Interestingly, the entire long-run estimators suggest that the long-run income elasticity is more than unity. Therefore, our findings support the health care luxury hypothesis in Malaysia. From policy view point, the system-wise Rao’s F-test reveals strong unilateral causality running from real income to health care expenditure in Malaysia.
|Date of creation:||2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Anindya Sen, 2005. "Is Health Care a Luxury? New Evidence from OECD Data," International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 147-164, June.
- Abdulnasser Hatemi-J & Ghazi Shukur, 2002. "Multivariate-based causality tests of twin deficits in the US," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(6), pages 817-824.
- Zijun Wang & Andrew J. Rettenmaier, 2007. "A note on cointegration of health expenditures and income," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(6), pages 559-578.
- Muthi Samudram & Mahendhiran Nair & Santha Vaithilingam, 2009. "Keynes and Wagner on government expenditures and economic development: the case of a developing economy," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 713-713, June.
- Blomqvist, A.G. & Carter, R.A.L., 1993.
"Is Health Care Really a Luxury?,"
UWO Department of Economics Working Papers
9311, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
- Jennifer Roberts, 1999. "Sensitivity of elasticity estimates for OECD health care spending: analysis of a dynamic heterogeneous data field," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(5), pages 459-472.
- Selma J. Mushkin, 1962. "Health as an Investment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 129.
- Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Nikitas Pittis, 2004. "Estimator Choice and Fisher's Paradox: A Monte Carlo Study," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(1), pages 25-52.
- Chor Foon Tang, 2008. "Wagner’s Law versus Keynesian Hypothesis: New Evidence from Recursive Regression-Based Causality Approaches," The IUP Journal of Public Finance, IUP Publications, vol. 0(4), pages 29-38, November.
- Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Lothgren, Mickael, 2000.
"On stationarity and cointegration of international health expenditure and GDP,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 461-475, July.
- Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Löthgren, Mickael, 1998. "On stationarity and cointegration of international health expenditure and GDP," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 232, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 29 Jan 1999.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1991.
"A simple estimator of cointegrating vectors in higher order integrated systems,"
Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues
91-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993. "A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
- Ghazi Shukur & Panagiotis Mantalos, 2000. "A simple investigation of the Granger-causality test in integrated-cointegrated VAR systems," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(8), pages 1021-1031.
- Ekaterini Panopoulou & Nikitas Pittis, 2004. "A comparison of autoregressive distributed lag and dynamic OLS cointegration estimators in the case of a serially correlated cointegration error," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(2), pages 585-617, December.
- Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Sogaard, Jes & Andersson, Fredrik & Jonsson, Bengt, 1992. "An econometric analysis of health care expenditure: A cross-section study of the OECD countries," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 63-84, May.
- Abul M.M. Masih & Rumi Masih, 1998. "Does money cause prices, or the other way around?: Multi-country econometric evidence including error-correction modelling from South-east Asia," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 25(3), pages 138-160, September.
- Donald Freeman, 2003. "Is health care a necessity or a luxury? Pooled estimates of income elasticity from US state-level data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(5), pages 495-502.
- Hansen, Paul & King, Alan, 1996. "The determinants of health care expenditure: A cointegration approach," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 127-137, February.
- Chor Foon Tang, 2009. "An Examination of the Government Spending and Economic Growth Nexus for Malaysia Using the Leveraged Bootstrap Simulation Approach," Global Economic Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(2), pages 215-227.
- Clemente, Jesus & Marcuello, Carmen & Montanes, Antonio & Pueyo, Fernando, 2004. "On the international stability of health care expenditure functions: are government and private functions similar?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 589-613, May.
- Peter C. B. Phillips & Bruce E. Hansen, 1990. "Statistical Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with I(1) Processes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(1), pages 99-125.
- Parkin, David & McGuire, Alistair & Yule, Brian, 1987. "Aggregate health care expenditures and national income : Is health care a luxury good?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 109-127, June.
- Grossman, Michael, 1972. "On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(2), pages 223-55, March-Apr.
- Muthi Samudram & Mahendhiran Nair & Santha Vaithilingam, 2009. "Keynes and Wagner on government expenditures and economic development: the case of a developing economy," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 697-712, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:27287. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.