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A note on cointegration of health expenditures and income

Author

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  • Zijun Wang

    (Private Enterprise Research Center, Texas A&M University, USA)

  • Andrew J. Rettenmaier

    (Private Enterprise Research Center, Texas A&M University, USA)

Abstract

Utilizing a panel data set of 50 US states, this note investigates nonstationarity and cointegration of health care expenditures and gross state products (GSP). Both the individual state-based method and the recent panel data method are applied. Allowing for structural breaks in the test, we find that health care expenditures and GSP are both nonstationary. The evidence also suggests that the two series form a cointegrating relationship. The income elasticities of health spending vary over states and became smaller in the 1990s. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • Zijun Wang & Andrew J. Rettenmaier, 2007. "A note on cointegration of health expenditures and income," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(6), pages 559-578.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:hlthec:v:16:y:2007:i:6:p:559-578
    DOI: 10.1002/hec.1182
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Garry MacDonald & Sandra Hopkins, 2002. "Unit root properties of OECD health care expenditure and GDP data," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(4), pages 371-376.
    2. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-652, Special I.
    3. Hansen, Paul & King, Alan, 1996. "The determinants of health care expenditure: A cointegration approach," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 127-137, February.
    4. Josep Lluís Carrion-i-Silvestre & Tomás del Barrio-Castro & Enrique López-Bazo, 2005. "Breaking the panels: An application to the GDP per capita," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 8(2), pages 159-175, July.
    5. Jewell, Todd & Lee, Junsoo & Tieslau, Margie & Strazicich, Mark C., 2003. "Stationarity of health expenditures and GDP: evidence from panel unit root tests with heterogeneous structural breaks," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 313-323, March.
    6. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
    7. U. -G. Gerdtham & M. Lothgren, 2002. "New panel results on cointegration of international health expenditure and GDP," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(13), pages 1679-1686.
    8. Yoosoon Chang & Joon Y. Park, 2003. "A Sieve Bootstrap For The Test Of A Unit Root," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(4), pages 379-400, July.
    9. Blomqvist, A. G. & Carter, R. A. L., 1997. "Is health care really a luxury?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 207-229, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tang, Chor Foon, 2010. "Revisiting the health-income nexus in Malaysia: ARDL cointegration and Rao's F-test for causality," MPRA Paper 27287, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Nadide Sevil Halıcı-Tülüce & İbrahim Doğan & Cüneyt Dumrul, 2016. "Is income relevant for health expenditure and economic growth nexus?," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 23-49, March.
    3. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Juncal Cunado & Luis A. Gil - Alana & Rangan Gupta, 2015. "The Relationship between Healthcare expenditures and Disposable Personal Income in the US States: A Fractional Integration and Cointegration Analysis," Working Papers 201532, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    4. Tang, Chor Foon, 2010. "The determinants of health expenditure in Malaysia: A time series analysis," MPRA Paper 24356, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Zijun Wang, 2009. "The convergence of health care expenditure in the US states," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 55-70.
    6. Nicholas Apergis, 2013. "Health Expenses: Evidence from the Club Clustering Approach," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 19(4), pages 399-407, November.
    7. repec:kap:iaecre:v:19:y:2013:i:4:p:399-407 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Nicholas Apergis & Puja Padhi, 2013. "Health expenses and economic growth: convergence dynamics across the Indian States," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 261-277, December.

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