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Perceived financial barriers and the start-up decision: An econometric analysis of gender differences using GEM data

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  • Stephen, Roper
  • Jonathan M., Scott

Abstract

Although accessing finance is key to the foundation of any business, particular concerns have been expressed about the ability of UK women-owned firms to obtain external finance. In this paper we use an econometric approach to explore the effect of perceptions of financial barriers to start-up on the start-up decision itself. Our analysis is based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK 2004 database. Standardising for a range of individual characteristics, we find that women are around 7.4 per cent more likely to perceive financial barriers to business start-up than men. As perceptions of financial barriers are linked negatively to the start-up decision, stronger perceptions of financial barriers among women are having a disproportionate effect on women’s start-up decisions. However, being female also has an additional negative effect on the start-up decision, not linked to financial barriers. Policy responses, therefore, need to take into account the demand-side with the aim of countering the more negative perceptions of start-up finance among potential women entrepreneurs. Mentoring and confidence building programmes are obvious possibilities. We also find support for the value of university and college-based work experience programmes. [PUBLISHED ABSTRACT]

Suggested Citation

  • Stephen, Roper & Jonathan M., Scott, 2009. "Perceived financial barriers and the start-up decision: An econometric analysis of gender differences using GEM data," MPRA Paper 23342, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:23342
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/23342/1/MPRA_paper_23342.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-827, August.
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    4. Kon, Y & Storey, D J, 2003. "A Theory of Discouraged Borrowers," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 37-49, August.
    5. Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1994. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, pages 334-347.
    6. Taylor, Mark P, 2001. "Self-Employment and Windfall Gains in Britain: Evidence from Panel Data," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(272), pages 539-565, November.
    7. Yannis Georgellis & Howard Wall, 2005. "Gender differences in self-employment," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-342.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:gem:wpaper:1201 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Pelger, Ines, 2012. "Male vs. female business owners: Are there differences in investment behavior?," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 62016, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    3. Katherina Kuschel & María-Teresa Lepeley & Fernanda Espinosa & Sebastián Gutiérrez, 2015. "Entrepreneurial Funding Challenges for Latin American Women Start-up Founders," Serie Working Papers 24, Universidad del Desarrollo, School of Business and Economics.
    4. Claudia Alvarez & David Urbano, 2008. "Entorno e Iniciativa Emprendedora: una Perspectiva Institucional," Working Papers 0807, Departament Empresa, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, revised Dec 2008.
    5. In Lee & Matthew Marvel, 2014. "Revisiting the entrepreneur gender–performance relationship: a firm perspective," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 769-786, April.
    6. Joern H. Block & Lennart Hoogerheide & Roy Thurik, 2009. "Education and Entrepreneurial Choice: An Instrumental Variables Analysis," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 09-088/4, Tinbergen Institute, revised 23 Nov 2010.
    7. Dianne H. B. Welsh & Eugene Kaciak & Caroline Minialai, 2017. "The influence of perceived management skills and perceived gender discrimination in launch decisions by women entrepreneurs," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 1-33, March.
    8. Hao-Chen Huang, 2016. "Entrepreneurial resources and speed of entrepreneurial success in an emerging market: the moderating effect of entrepreneurship," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 1-26, March.
    9. Salustiano Martínez-Fierro & José María Biedma-Ferrer & José Ruiz-Navarro, 2016. "Entrepreneurship and strategies for economic development," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(4), pages 835-851, December.
    10. Dong Xiang & Andrew C. Worthington & Helen Higgs, 2011. "Firm-level determinants and impacts of finance-seeking behaviour and outcomes for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Australia," Discussion Papers in Finance finance:201115, Griffith University, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics.
    11. repec:enr:rpaper:0018 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Tammy Rogers, 2012. "Bank market structure and entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 909-920, November.
    13. Claudia Álvarez & David Urbano & José Amorós, 2014. "GEM research: achievements and challenges," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 445-465, March.
    14. Kuen-Hung Tsai & Hui-Chen Chang & Chen-Yi Peng, 2016. "Extending the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: a moderated mediation model," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 445-463, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Finance; entrepreneurship; start-up; SME; gender; women;

    JEL classification:

    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
    • D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Saving; Personal Finance
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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