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Globalization and Structural Changes in the Indian Industrial Sector: An Analysis of Production Functions



In 1991 India chose to open her economy and formulated the New Economic Policy (NEP). Under the structural adjustment and reform programmes, the NEP aimed at promoting growth by eliminating supply bottlenecks that hinder competitiveness, efficiency and dynamism in the economic system This study investigates into the structural changes in the manufacturing sector of India brought about by liberalization and globalization of the economy. Structural changes in terms of employment of labour and capital, indicated by replacement of the former by the latter, and changes in returns-to-scale have been examined by estimating CES, Zellner-Revankar, Transcendental and Diewert production functions. State-wise data for 1990-91 and 2003-04 have been analyzed. The findings have indicated that the rise in industrial output during the reference period is accountable to substitution of capital for labour in almost all states. In the pre-globalization period the industries experienced increasing returns to scale. Globalization has given way to diminishing returns to scale. Along with a rise in industrial output, globalization has led to a decline in regional disparities in terms of population-deflated indices of employment of manpower and capital, and the resultant output.

Suggested Citation

  • Mishra, SK, 2006. "Globalization and Structural Changes in the Indian Industrial Sector: An Analysis of Production Functions," MPRA Paper 1231, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:1231

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. SK Mishra, 2007. "Estimation of Zellner-Revankar Production Function Revisited," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 3(14), pages 1-7.
    2. Sankar, Ulaganathan, 1970. "Elasticities of Substitution and Returns to Scale in Indian Manufacturing Industries," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 11(3), pages 399-411, October.
    3. Williams, Martin & Laumas, Prem S, 1984. "Economies of Scale for Various Types of Manufacturing Production Technologies in an Underdeveloped Economy," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 32(2), pages 401-412, January.
    4. Mishra, SK, 2006. "Global Optimization by Differential Evolution and Particle Swarm Methods: Evaluation on Some Benchmark Functions," MPRA Paper 1005, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Chand, Satish & Sne, Kunal, 2002. "Trade Liberalization and Productivity Growth: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(1), pages 120-132, February.
    6. Nigel L. Driffield & Uma S. Kambhampati, 2003. "Trade Liberalization and the Efficiency of Firms in Indian Manufacturing," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(3), pages 419-430, August.
    7. Shaikh, Anwar, 1974. "Laws of Production and Laws of Algebra: The Humbug Production Function," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 56(1), pages 115-120, February.
    8. Dasgupta, Madhuchhanda & Mishra, SK, 2004. "Least absolute deviation estimation of linear econometric models: A literature review," MPRA Paper 1781, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Kaliappa Kalirajan & Shashanka Bhide, 2004. "The Post-reform Performance of the Manufacturing Sector in India," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 3(2), pages 126-157.
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    More about this item


    India; Manufacturing sector; industry; globalization; liberalization; production function; returns to scale; substitution; labour; capital; Zellner-Revankar; CES; Transcendental; Diewert; nonlinear; optimization; Differential evolution; LAD; Least Absolute Deviation estimation;

    JEL classification:

    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
    • L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General

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