IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/1192.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The real exchange rate of the rand and competitiveness of South Africa's trade

Author

Listed:
  • Mtonga, Elvis

Abstract

In the last 10 years since South Africa transformed into a democracy, the rand has seen an increase in volatility of its real exchange rate. These fluctuations in the rand’s real exchange rate have raised questions as to whether they signify significant misalignment of the currency and thereby undermine competitiveness of South Africa’s exports abroad. This is a pertinent question in the South African context because foreign trade has been critical to the growth of the economy. Efforts to address current high levels of unemployment and widespread poverty among the majority of the population have depended upon this growth. This study investigates the extent to which fluctuations in the rand’s real exchange rate have impacted on the competitiveness of South African trade flows by determining whether, at some point, the rand had been misaligned, and the likely consequences of such a misalignment. Using data from 1972 to 2003, and an equilibrium correction model of the rand’s real exchange rate drawn on existing literature, the study finds that, from 1994 to 1996, and also in 1998, the rand’s real exchange rate became undervalued by an average 10%. By early 2002, the extent of overshooting had reached 20%. However, the strong recovery of the rand at the start of 2002 reversed this overshooting and instead pushed the real exchange rate above its equilibrium by an average 16 to 17% at the end of 2003. This suggests significant loss of trade competitiveness during 2003 and needed a nominal depreciation to correct the imbalance.

Suggested Citation

  • Mtonga, Elvis, 2006. "The real exchange rate of the rand and competitiveness of South Africa's trade," MPRA Paper 1192, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:1192
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/1192/1/MPRA_paper_1192.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ronald Macdonald, 1995. "Long-Run Exchange Rate Modeling: A Survey of the Recent Evidence," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(3), pages 437-489, September.
    2. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol & Smith, Richard J., 2000. "Structural analysis of vector error correction models with exogenous I(1) variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 97(2), pages 293-343, August.
    3. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    4. Gonzalo, Jesus & Granger, Clive W J, 1995. "Estimation of Common Long-Memory Components in Cointegrated Systems," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(1), pages 27-35, January.
    5. Osterwald-Lenum, Michael, 1992. "A Note with Quantiles of the Asymptotic Distribution of the Maximum Likelihood Cointegration Rank Test Statistics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 461-472, August.
    6. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501.
    7. Vincent Koen & Laurence Boone & Alain de Serres & Nicola Fuchs, 2001. "Tracking the Euro," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 298, OECD Publishing.
    8. Peter J Montiel & Bijan B. Aghevli & Mohsin S. Khan, 1991. "Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries; Some Analytical Issues," IMF Occasional Papers 78, International Monetary Fund.
    9. By Gunnar Jonsson, 2001. "Inflation, Money Demand, and Purchasing Power Parity in South Africa," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 48(2), pages 1-2.
    10. Tarhan Feyzioglu, 1997. "Estimating the Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate; An Application to Finland," IMF Working Papers 97/109, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Steven A. Symansky & Peter B. Clark & Leonardo Bartolini & Tamim Bayoumi, 1994. "Exchange Rates and Economic Fundamentals; A Framework for Analysis," IMF Occasional Papers 115, International Monetary Fund.
    12. James G. MacKinnon, 1990. "Critical Values for Cointegration Tests," Working Papers 1227, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    13. Ronald MacDonald & Peter B. Clark, 1998. "Exchange Rates and Economic Fundamentals; A Methodological Comparison of BEERs and FEERs," IMF Working Papers 98/67, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jeffrey Frankel, 2007. "On The Rand: Determinants Of The South African Exchange Rate," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 75(3), pages 425-441, September.
    2. Balazs Egert, 2012. "Nominal and Real Exchange Rate Models in South Africa: How Robust are they?," CESifo Working Paper Series 3853, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. Goodness C. Aye & Mehmet Balcilar & Adél Bosch & Rangan Gupta & Francois Stofberg, 2013. "The out-of-sample forecasting performance of non-linear models of real exchange rate behaviour: The case of the South African Rand," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 10(1), pages 121-148, April.
    4. Balázs Égert, 2010. "The Impact of Monetary and Commodity Fundamentals, Macro News and Central Bank Communication on the Exchange Rate: Evidence from South Africa," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 21(5), pages 655-677, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Real exchange rate; South African rand; trade competitiveness;

    JEL classification:

    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:1192. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.