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Symmetric and asymmetric relationships between renewable energy, oil imports, arms exports, military spending, and economic growth in China

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  • Ben Youssef, Slim

Abstract

This paper evaluates the symmetric and asymmetric relationships between military spending (MS) and oil imports (OIM) in China. For this purpose, we use the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) and the non-linear ARDL approaches, with annual data ranging from 1989 to 2016. In the long-run, MS increases OIM, renewable energy (RE) consumption, and gross domestic product (GDP). RE consumption increases arms exports (AE) and GDP but reduces OIM. Interestingly, OIM reduces AE and AE harm GDP. OIM seem to have a non-linear and asymmetric impact on MS both in the short- and long-run. In the long-run, an increase in OIM by 1% increases MS by 0.853%, while a reduction of OIM by 1% reduces MS by 1.467%. The cumulative dynamic multiplier effects indicate that China reacts very rapidly to positive shocks, but is very cautious about reducing its MS in the event of a negative shock. It appears that China is prompt to reduce considerably its MS whenever it is assured about its energy security. This could be partially achieved by increasing its RE consumption, and the military sector is invited to contribute especially through its R&D activities. This could lead to a cleaner environment and a more peaceful world.

Suggested Citation

  • Ben Youssef, Slim, 2021. "Symmetric and asymmetric relationships between renewable energy, oil imports, arms exports, military spending, and economic growth in China," MPRA Paper 111413, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:111413
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Renewable energy; oil imports; arms exports; military spending; non-linear and linear autoregressive distributed lag; China.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • H56 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - National Security and War
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
    • Q42 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Alternative Energy Sources

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