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Methodological approaches for measuring the creative employment: a critical appraisal with an application to Portugal

  • Sara Santos Cruz

    ()

    (CEF.UP, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto)

  • Aurora A.C. Teixeira

    ()

    (CEF.UP, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto; INESC Tec; OBEGEF)

Creative industries and creative occupations have increasingly been attracting attention in recent years, in both policy and academic fields. Not enough literature has yet been produced on the topic to overcome the fuzziness and all-embracing definitions of the creative class, the lack of objectivity in the criteria to select who is creative or not, the limitations of data used and problems of highly aggregated occupational categories which jeopardize an accurate analysis of these workers. This paper presents a survey and mapping of the main methods for measuring the creative class and industries and proposes a combined industry and occupation-based approach for estimating the scale of creative employment in Portugal. Using micro data from 2009 Quadros de Pessoal database, which encompasses over 3 million workers, we found that creative employment in Portugal amounts to 6.9% of total employment (i.e., 215525 workers), with the most important creative sectors being ‘advertising and marketing’ (1.7%), ‘software publishing/computer programming and consultancy’ (1.8%), and ‘research and development’ (0.9%). Additionally, we found that most creative employees (60%) work in non-core creative sectors, that is, Portuguese creative workers are highly dispersed across all the sectors of the economy, particularly those considered non-creative, such as the manufacturing and the services sectors.

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Paper provided by Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto in its series FEP Working Papers with number 455.

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Length: 48 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:por:fepwps:455
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  1. Høgni Kalsø Hansen & Thomas Niedomysl, 2009. "Migration of the creative class: evidence from Sweden," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 191-206, March.
  2. Ann Markusen, 2006. "Urban development and the politics of a creative class: evidence from a study of artists," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 38(10), pages 1921-1940, October.
  3. Ron A. Boschma & Michael Fritsch, 2007. "Creative Class and Regional Growth - Empirical Evidence from Eight European Countries," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-066, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  4. Jamie Peck, 2005. "Struggling with the Creative Class," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(4), pages 740-770, December.
  5. Fritsch, Michael & Stützer, Michael, 2008. "The Geography of Creative People in Germany," MPRA Paper 21965, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Jason Potts & Stuart Cunningham & John Hartley & Paul Ormerod, 2008. "Social network markets: a new definition of the creative industries," Journal of Cultural Economics, Springer, vol. 32(3), pages 167-185, September.
  7. Florida, Richard & Mellander, Charlotta & Stolarick, Kevin, 2007. "Inside the Black Box of Regional Development - human capital, the creative class and tolerance," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 88, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  8. Allen J. Scott, 1997. "The Cultural Economy of Cities," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(2), pages 323-339, 06.
  9. David Mcgranahan & Timothy Wojan, 2007. "Recasting the Creative Class to Examine Growth Processes in Rural and Urban Counties," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(2), pages 197-216.
  10. Mellander, Charlotta & Florida, Richard, 2007. "The Creative Class or Human Capital? - explaining regional development in Sweden," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 79, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  11. Jason Potts & Stuart Cunningham, 2010. "Four models of the creative industries," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 120(1), pages 163-180.
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