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Economic Development in the Middle East

Author

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  • Yochanan Shachmurove

    () (The City College of The City University of New York and the University of Pennsylvania)

Abstract

The economic and financial development are examined in Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, representing the Middle East and North Africa region. Lengthy bureaucratic procedures, unclear regulations, corruption, and heavy reliance on oil exports pose major obstacles to economic development and integration into global markets. These controlled economies directly affect foreign and domestic investments that are measured by five factors: Starting a Business, Hiring and Firing Workers, Enforcing Contracts, Getting Credit, and Closing a Business. This paper demonstrates that improvements in the standard of living will only be attained with fiscal and political reforms.

Suggested Citation

  • Yochanan Shachmurove, 2004. "Economic Development in the Middle East," PIER Working Paper Archive 04-022, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Handle: RePEc:pen:papers:04-022
    as

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    File URL: https://economics.sas.upenn.edu/sites/default/files/filevault/working-papers/04-022.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Simeon Djankov & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2002. "The Regulation of Entry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 1-37.
    2. Dollar, David & Kraay, Aart, 2002. "Growth Is Good for the Poor," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 195-225, September.
    3. Yanikkaya, Halit, 2003. "Trade openness and economic growth: a cross-country empirical investigation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 57-89, October.
    4. Juan C. Botero & Simeon Djankov & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2004. "The Regulation of Labor," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(4), pages 1339-1382.
    5. Qinglai Meng & Andres Velasco, 1999. "Can Capital Mobility be Destabilizing?," NBER Working Papers 7263, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Razin, Assaf & Sadka, Efraim & Coury, Tarek, 2003. "Trade openness, investment instability and terms-of-trade volatility," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 285-306, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA; Algeria; Arab Republic of Egypt; Islamic Republic of Iran; Israel; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Morocco; Oman; Saudi Arabia; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; the Republic of Yemen; Economic Indicators; Foreign Direct Investment;

    JEL classification:

    • E0 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General
    • E1 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models
    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
    • N2 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions
    • O4 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity
    • O5 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies

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