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Effort levels in contests: an empirical application of the Tullock model

Author

Listed:
  • Stephen Dobson
  • John Goddard
  • Frank Stahler

Abstract

Empirical applications of the Tullock contest model are rare, due in part to the non-observability of effort. This paper presents an application of the standard Tullock model in a setting where effort can be observed and explained. A simple contest model is used to predict levels of effort in English soccer, with data on fouls and yellow and red cards used to reflect the effort of teams. Effort levels are found to be higher in matches between evenly balanced teams, and in matches with implications for end-of-season outcomes. The results suggest that the teams’ effort levels are strategic complements.

Suggested Citation

  • Stephen Dobson & John Goddard & Frank Stahler, 2008. "Effort levels in contests: an empirical application of the Tullock model," Working Papers 2008/9, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbs:wpaper:2008/9
    as

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    File URL: http://www.ntu.ac.uk/research/document_uploads/85419.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2008
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Corchon, Luis C, 2000. " On the Allocative Effects of Rent Seeking," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 2(4), pages 483-491.
    2. Bulow, Jeremy I & Geanakoplos, John D & Klemperer, Paul D, 1985. "Multimarket Oligopoly: Strategic Substitutes and Complements," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(3), pages 488-511, June.
    3. Peter Dawson & Stephen Dobson & John Goddard & John Wilson, 2007. "Are football referees really biased and inconsistent?: evidence on the incidence of disciplinary sanction in the English Premier League," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 170(1), pages 231-250.
    4. Nitzan, Shmuel, 1991. "Collective Rent Dissipation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1522-1534, November.
    5. Nitzan, Shmuel, 1994. "Modelling rent-seeking contests," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 41-60, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Tullock contest; team sport; strategic complements.;

    JEL classification:

    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism

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