IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/8754.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Why has the Employment-Productivity Tradeoff among Industrialized Countries been so strong?

Author

Listed:
  • Paul Beaudry
  • Fabrice Collard

Abstract

This paper is motivated by a set of cross-country observations on labor productivity growth among industrial countries over the period 1960-1997. In particular, we show that over this period, the speed of convergence among industrialized countries has decreased substantially while the negative effect of a country's own employment growth (or labor force growth) on labor productivity has increased dramatically. The main contribution of the paper is to show how these observations are consistent with the view that industrialized countries have been undergoing a particularly drastic technological revolution over the recent past. In effect, we show how the process of endogenous technological adoption, following the diffusion of a general purpose technology, can explain these observations by causing the emergence of an AK accumulation phase where demographic factors temporarily become an major determinant of labor productivity growth. Our estimation of the model implies that the AK phase has been in effect since the early to mid-seventies, but that this phase may now be coming to an end. An important contribution of the paper is to analyze growth experiences across advanced industrialized countries within an open economy framework and to evaluate the explanation by estimating a multicountry dynamic general model.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul Beaudry & Fabrice Collard, 2002. "Why has the Employment-Productivity Tradeoff among Industrialized Countries been so strong?," NBER Working Papers 8754, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8754 Note: LS
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8754.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bresnahan, Timothy F. & Trajtenberg, M., 1995. "General purpose technologies 'Engines of growth'?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, pages 83-108.
    2. Joseph Zeira, 1998. "Workers, Machines, and Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(4), pages 1091-1117.
    3. Susanto Basu & David N. Weil, 1998. "Appropriate Technology and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(4), pages 1025-1054.
    4. Ricardo J. Caballero & John V. Leahy, 1996. "Fixed Costs: The Demise of Marginal q," NBER Working Papers 5508, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    6. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    7. Daron Acemoglu, 1999. "Changes in Unemployment and Wage Inequality: An Alternative Theory and Some Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1259-1278, December.
    8. Jaume Ventura, 1997. "Growth and Interdependence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(1), pages 57-84.
    9. King, Gary & Roberts, Margaret E., 2015. "How Robust Standard Errors Expose Methodological Problems They Do Not Fix, and What to Do About It," Political Analysis, Cambridge University Press, pages 159-179.
    10. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 2001. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 339-412 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Francesco Caselli, 1999. "Technological Revolutions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(1), pages 78-102, March.
    12. Dale W. Jorgenson & Kevin J. Stiroh, 2000. "Raising the Speed Limit: U.S. Economic Growth in the Information Age," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 31(1), pages 125-236.
    13. Paul Beaudry & David Green, 1998. "What is Driving US and Canadian Wages: Exogenous Technical Change or Endogenous Choice of Technique?," NBER Working Papers 6853, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Paul Beaudry & David Green, 2000. "The Changing Structure of Wages in the US and Germany: What Explains the Differences?," NBER Working Papers 7697, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. The Short-Run Costs of Labor market Liberalization
      by Mark Thoma in Economist's View on 2008-04-16 03:51:29

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Karl Aiginger & Michael Landesmann, 2002. "Competitive Economic Performance: The European View," WIFO Working Papers 179, WIFO.
    2. Beaudry, Paul & Collard, Fabrice & Green, David A., 2003. "Changes in the World Distribution of Output-per-Worker 1960-98 : How a Standard Decomposition tells an Unorthodox Story," IDEI Working Papers 190, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    3. Daron Acemoglu, 2010. "When Does Labor Scarcity Encourage Innovation?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 118(6), pages 1037-1078.
    4. Christopher J. Gust & Jaime R. Marquez, 2002. "International comparisons of productivity growth: the role of information technology and regulatory practices," International Finance Discussion Papers 727, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    5. Joseph Zeira, 2006. "Machines as Engines of Growth," DEGIT Conference Papers c011_059, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
    6. Philippe Askenazy & Xavier Timbeau, 2003. "Partage de la valeur ajoutée et rentabilité du capital en France et aux États-Unis : une réévaluation ; suivi d'un commentaire de Xavier Timbeau," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 363(1), pages 167-189.
    7. Enrico Marelli & Marcello Signorelli & Joanna Tyrowicz, 2012. "Crises and Joint Employment–Productivity Dynamics: A Comparative Perspective for European Countries," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 54(2), pages 361-394, June.
    8. Beaudry, Paul & Collard, Fabrice, 2003. "Globalization, Gains from Specialization and the World Distribution of Output," IDEI Working Papers 199, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    9. Enrico Marelli & Marcello Signorelli, 2010. "Employment, productivity and models of growth in the EU," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(7), pages 732-754, October.
    10. Albert van der Horst & Hugo Rojas-Romagosa & Leon Bettendorf, 2009. "Does employment affect productivity?," CPB Discussion Paper 119, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    11. Michel Dumont & Chantal Kegels, 2016. "Working Paper 06-16 - Young Firms and Industry Dynamics in Belgium," Working Papers 1606, Federal Planning Bureau, Belgium.
    12. Misbah Tanveer Choudhry, 2013. "Age Dependency and Labor Productivity Divergence," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 113/2013, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
    13. Emilia Herman, 2011. "The Impact of Economic Growth Process on Employment in European Union Countries," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 14(42), pages 47-67, December.
    14. Beaudry, Paul & Collard, Fabrice, 2006. "Globalization, returns to accumulation and the world distribution of output," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(5), pages 879-909, July.
    15. Emilia Herman & Maria-Ana Georgescu, 2012. "Is there a trade-off between employment and labour productivity in new EU member states?," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 15(45), pages 303-318, December.
    16. Ian Dew-Becker & Robert J. Gordon, 2008. "The Role of Labor Market Changes in the Slowdown of European Productivity Growth," NBER Working Papers 13840, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Kerstin Enflo, 2010. "Productivity and employment—Is there a trade-off? Comparing Western European regions and American states 1950–2000," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, pages 401-421.
    18. Gust, Christopher & Marquez, Jaime, 2004. "International comparisons of productivity growth: the role of information technology and regulatory practices," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 33-58, February.
    19. Paul Beaudry & Fabrice Collard & David A. Green, 2002. "Decomposing the Twin-peaks in the World Distribution of Output-per-worker," NBER Working Papers 9240, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. Hervé Boulhol & Laure Turner, 2009. "Employment-Productivity Trade-off and Labour Composition," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 698, OECD Publishing.
    21. Yogo, Urbain Thierry, 2008. "Croissance et Emploi en Afrique Subsaharienne:Evidence théorique et Faits Empiriques
      [Growth and Employment In Subsaharan Africa: Theoretical Evidence and Empirical Facts]
      ," MPRA Paper 10474, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 Sep 2008.
    22. Zeira, Joseph, 2005. "Machines as Engines of Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 5429, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    23. Cornelia VĂCEANU, 2014. "Evidence On Employment Rate And Economic Growth," SEA - Practical Application of Science, Fundația Română pentru Inteligența Afacerii, Editorial Department, issue 5, pages 669-674, November.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • O41 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Lists

    This item is featured on the following reading lists or Wikipedia pages:
    1. Canadian Macro Study Group

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8754. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.