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Trading Inefficiencies in California's Electricity Markets

  • Severin Borenstein
  • James Bushnell
  • Christopher R. Knittel
  • Catherine Wolfram

We study price convergence between the two major markets for wholesale electricity in California from their deregulation in April 1998 through November 2000, nearly the end of trading in one market. We would expect profit-maximizing traders to have eliminated persistent price differences between the markets. Institutional impediments and traders' incomplete understanding of the markets, however, could have delayed or prevented price convergence. We find that the two benchmark electricity prices in California -- the Power Exchange's day-ahead price and the Independent System Operator's real-time price -- differed substantially after the markets opened but then appeared to be converging by the beginning of 2000. Starting in May 2000, however, price levels and price differences increased dramatically. We consider several explanations for the significant price differences and conclude that rapidly changing market rules and market fundamentals, including one buyer's attempt to exercise a form of monopsony power, made it difficult for traders to take advantage of opportunities that ex post appear to have been profitable.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8620.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 8620.

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Date of creation: Dec 2001
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Publication status: published as Borenstein, Severin, James Bushnell, Chris Knittel, and Catherine Wolfram. “Inefficiencies and Market Power in Financial Arbitrage: A Study of California's Electricity Markets." Journal of Industrial Economics 56, 2 (June 2008).
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8620
Note: IO EEE
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  1. Emilio Peroni & Robert McNown, 1998. "Noninformative and informative tests of efficiency in three energy futures markets," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(8), pages 939-964, December.
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  6. Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1987. "A Simple, Positive Semi-definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 703-08, May.
  7. Bruno Biais & Pierre Hillion & Chester Spatt, 1999. "Price Discovery and Learning during the Preopening Period in the Paris Bourse," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(6), pages 1218-1248, December.
  8. Bushnell, J. & Oren, S., 1997. "Transmission pricing in California's proposed electricity market," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 237-244, September.
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