Both Sides of Corporate Diversification: The Value Impacts of Geographic and Industrial Diversification
This paper examines the effect of geographic and industrial diversification on firm value for a sample of over 20,000 firm-year observations of U.S. corporations from 1987-1993. Our" multivariate tests indicate the average value of a firm with international operations is 2.2% higher than comparable domestic single activity firms, while the average value of a firm with activities in multiple industrial segments is 5.4% lower than a portfolio of comparable focused domestic firms in similar activities. More importantly, we demonstrate that failure to control simultaneously for both dimensions of diversification results in over-estimation of the negative value impact of industrial diversification, but has little impact on estimates of the positive value impact of geographic diversification.
|Date of creation:||Oct 1997|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- James R. Hines, Jr. & Eric M. Rice, 1990.
"Fiscal Paradise: Foreign Tax Havens and American Business,"
NBER Working Papers
3477, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hines, James R, Jr & Rice, Eric M, 1994. "Fiscal Paradise: Foreign Tax Havens and American Business," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(1), pages 149-82, February.
- Hines, J.R. & Rice, E.M., 1990. "Fiscal Paradise: Foreign Tax Havens And American Business," Papers 56, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Discussion Paper.
- Eckbo, B Espen, 1985. "Mergers and the Market Concentration Doctrine: Evidence from the Capital Market," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 58(3), pages 325-49, July.
- Linda Allen & Christos Pantzalis, 1996. "Valuation of the operating Flexibility of Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 27(4), pages 633-653, December.
- White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
- Morck, R. & Yeung, B., 1991.
"Why Investors Value Multinationality,"
282, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Comment, Robert & Jarrell, Gregg A., 1995. "Corporate focus and stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 67-87, January.
- Kaplan, Steven N & Weisbach, Michael S, 1992.
" The Success of Acquisitions: Evidence from Divestitures,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 47(1), pages 107-38, March.
- Steven Kaplan & Michael S. Weisbach, 1990. "The Success of Acquisitions: Evidence From Disvestitures," NBER Working Papers 3484, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Berger, Philip G. & Ofek, Eli, 1995. "Diversification's effect on firm value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 39-65, January.
- Gordon M. Bodnar & Joseph Weintrop, 1997.
"The Valuation of the Foreign Income of U.S. Multinational Firms: A Growth Opportunities Perspective,"
NBER Working Papers
5904, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bodnar, Gordon M. & Weintrop, Joseph, 1997. "The valuation of the foreign income of US multinational firms: a growth opportunities perspective," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 69-97, December.
- Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
- Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1990.
" Do Managerial Objectives Drive Bad Acquisitions?,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 45(1), pages 31-48, March.
- Agrawal, Anup & Jaffe, Jeffrey F & Mandelker, Gershon N, 1992. " The Post-merger Performance of Acquiring Firms: A Re-examination of an Anomaly," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1605-21, September.
- Brewer, H. L., 1981. "Investor Benefits from Corporate International Diversification," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(01), pages 113-126, March.
- Errunza, Vihang R & Senbet, Lemma W, 1981. "The Effects of International Operations on the Market Value of the Firm: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 36(2), pages 401-17, May.
- Jensen, Michael C. & Ruback, Richard S., 1983. "The market for corporate control : The scientific evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 5-50, April.
- Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
- Constatinos C Markides & Christopher D Ittner, 1994. "Shareholder Benefits from Corporate International Diversification: Evidence from U.S. International Acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 25(2), pages 343-366, June.
- Stulz, ReneM., 1990. "Managerial discretion and optimal financing policies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 3-27, July.
- Doukas, John & Travlos, Nickolaos G, 1988. " The Effect of Corporate Multinationalism on Shareholders' Wealth: Evidence from International Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(5), pages 1161-75, December.
- Caves, Richard E, 1971. "International Corporations: The Industrial Economics of Foreign Investment," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 38(149), pages 1-27, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:6224. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.