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Both Sides of Corporate Diversification: The Value Impacts of Geographic and Industrial Diversification

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  • Gordon M. Bodnar
  • Charles Tang
  • Joseph Weintrop

Abstract

This paper examines the effect of geographic and industrial diversification on firm value for a sample of over 20,000 firm-year observations of U.S. corporations from 1987-1993. Our" multivariate tests indicate the average value of a firm with international operations is 2.2% higher than comparable domestic single activity firms, while the average value of a firm with activities in multiple industrial segments is 5.4% lower than a portfolio of comparable focused domestic firms in similar activities. More importantly, we demonstrate that failure to control simultaneously for both dimensions of diversification results in over-estimation of the negative value impact of industrial diversification, but has little impact on estimates of the positive value impact of geographic diversification.

Suggested Citation

  • Gordon M. Bodnar & Charles Tang & Joseph Weintrop, 1997. "Both Sides of Corporate Diversification: The Value Impacts of Geographic and Industrial Diversification," NBER Working Papers 6224, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:6224
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    Cited by:

    1. Jafarinejad, Mohammad & Jory, Surendranath R. & Ngo, Thanh N., 2015. "The effects of institutional ownership on the value and risk of diversified firms," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 207-219.
    2. Fauver, Larry & Naranjo, Andy, 2010. "Derivative usage and firm value: The influence of agency costs and monitoring problems," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 719-735, December.
    3. Júnior, José L. R., 2008. "What is the Value of Corporate Social Responsibility? An answer from Brazilian Sustainability Index," Insper Working Papers wpe_142, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa.
    4. Kevin Aretz & Söhnke M. Bartram, 2010. "Corporate Hedging And Shareholder Value," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 33(4), pages 317-371, December.
    5. Pablo A. Garcia‐Fuentes & Gustavo F. C. Ferreira & P. Lynn Kennedy, 2013. "Economic Performance of U.S. Multinational Agribusinesses: Foreign Direct Investment and Firm Strategy," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(2), pages 242-255, March.
    6. Jose Manuel Campa & Simi Kedia, 2002. "Explaining the Diversification Discount," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1731-1762, August.
    7. Elsas, Ralf & Hackethal, Andreas & Holzhäuser, Markus, 2010. "The anatomy of bank diversification," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1274-1287, June.
    8. Reid W. Click & Paul Harrison, 2000. "Does multinationality matter? Evidence of value destruction in U.S. multinational corporations," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    9. Richard A. Bettis & Constance E. Helfat & J. Myles Shaver & Sungyong Chang & Bruce Kogut & Jae-Suk Yang, 2016. "Global diversification discount and its discontents: A bit of self-selection makes a world of difference," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(11), pages 2254-2274, November.
    10. Glaser, Markus & Müller, Sebastian, 2006. "Der Diversification Discount in Deutschland: Existiert ein Bewertungsabschlag für diversifizierte Unternehmen?," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 06-13, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim;Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
    11. Mohamed Azzim Gulamhussen & Carlos Pinheiro & Alberto Franco Pozzolo, 2010. "Do multinational banks create or destroy economic value?," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 36, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    12. Robert L. Conn & Andy Cosh & Paul M. Guest & Alan Hughes, 2005. "The Impact on UK Acquirers of Domestic, Cross-border, Public and Private Acquisitions," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(5-6), pages 815-870.
    13. Bushman, Robert & Chen, Qi & Engel, Ellen & Smith, Abbie, 2004. "Financial accounting information, organizational complexity and corporate governance systems," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 167-201, June.
    14. Guilhem Bascle, 2008. "Controlling for endogeneity with instrumental variables in strategic management research," Post-Print hal-00576795, HAL.
    15. repec:eee:riibaf:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:1103-1114 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Liang, Hsin-Yu & Ching, Yann Peng & Chan, Kam C., 2013. "Enhancing bank performance through branches or representative offices? Evidence from European banks," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 495-508.
    17. Campa, Jose M. & Chang, Kevin & Refalo, James F., 2000. "Options-based analysis of emerging market exchange rate expectations: Brazil's real plan, 1994-1999, An," IESE Research Papers D/425, IESE Business School.
    18. Vasilescu, Camelia & Millo, Yuval, 2016. "Do industrial and geographic diversifications have different effects on earnings management? Evidence from UK mergers and acquisitions," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 33-45.
    19. Eckert, Stefan & Dittfeld, Marcus & Muche, Thomas & Rässler, Susanne, 2010. "Does multinationality lead to value enhancement? An empirical examination of publicly listed corporations from Germany," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 562-574, December.
    20. Laeven, Luc, 2001. "International evidence on the value of product and geographic diversity," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2729, The World Bank.
    21. Cassiman, Bruno & Colombo, Massimo & Garrone, Paola & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2003. "Impact of M&A on the R&D process. An empirical analysis of the role of technological and market relatedness, The," IESE Research Papers D/500, IESE Business School.
    22. Cassiman, Bruno & Colombo, Massimo G. & Garrone, Paola & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2005. "The impact of M&A on the R&D process: An empirical analysis of the role of technological- and market-relatedness," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 195-220, March.
    23. Jory, Surendranath R. & Ngo, Thanh N., 2012. "The effect of foreign segment location on the geographical diversification discount," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 108-124.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance

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